Adrenomedullin, an autocrine mediator of blood-brain barrier function
Since the discovery that adrenomedullin gene expression is 20- to 40-fold higher in endothelial cells than even in the adrenal medulla, this peptide has been regarded as an important secretory product of the vascular endothelium, together with nitric oxide, eicosanoids, endothelin-1, and other vasoactive metabolites. Cerebral endothelial cells secrete an exceptionally large amount of adrenomedullin, and the adrenomedullin concentration is about 50% higher in the cerebral circulation than in the peripheral vasculature. The adrenomedullin production of cerebral endothelial cells is induced by astrocyte-derived factors. Adrenomedullin causes vasodilation in the cerebral circulation, may participate in the maintenance of the resting cerebral blood flow, and may be protective against ischemic brain injury. Recent data from our laboratory indicate that adrenomedullin, as an endothelium-derived autocrine/paracrine hormone, plays an important role in the regulation of specific blood-brain barrier properties. Adrenomedullin is suggested to be one of the physiological links between astrocyte-derived factors, cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP), and the induction and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, the role of adr...Continue Reading
Glucocorticoids alter adrenomedullin receptor expression and secretion in endothelial-like cells and astrocytes
Diphenylarsinic Acid Induced Activation of Cultured Rat Cerebellar Astrocytes: Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Upregulation of Transcription Factors, and Release of Brain-Active Cytokines
Expression of adrenomedullin and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide in PC12 cells after exposure to nerve growth factor
Postischemic infusion of adrenomedullin protects against ischemic stroke by inhibiting apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis
VPAC1 receptor (Vipr1)-deficient mice exhibit ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, with specific deficits in the effector stage
Gene expression profiling of brain cortex microvessels may support brain vasodilation in acute liver failure rat models
Effect of histamine and antagonists on electrical resistance across the blood-brain barrier in rat brain-surface microvessels
Passage state affects arachidonic acid content and eicosanoid release in porcine aortic endothelial cells
Polarity of the blood-brain barrier: distribution of enzymes between the luminal and antiluminal membranes of brain capillary endothelial cells
Penetration of small molecular weight substances through cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cell monolayers: the early effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate
Coupled glucose transport and metabolism in cultured neuronal cells: determination of the rate-limiting step
Effects of adrenomedullin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and amylin on cerebral circulation in dogs
Adrenomedullin stimulates two signal transduction pathways, cAMP accumulation and Ca2+ mobilization, in bovine aortic endothelial cells
Biochemical characteristics of primary and passaged cultures of primate brain microvessel endothelial cells
Clinical studies on the sites of production and clearance of circulating adrenomedullin in human subjects
Plasma levels of adrenomedullin, a newly identified hypotensive peptide, in patients with hypertension and renal failure
Production and secretion of adrenomedullin from vascular smooth muscle cells: augmented production by tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Discovery of adrenomedullin in rat ischemic cortex and evidence for its role in exacerbating focal brain ischemic damage
Vasoactive peptide levels in the plasma of young migraine patients with and without aura assessed both interictally and ictally
Adrenomedullin, a novel vasoactive hormone, binds to mouse astrocytes and stimulates cyclic AMP production
Intravenous infusion of adrenomedullin and increase in regional cerebral blood flow and prevention of ischemic brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats
Relaxant effects of vasodilator peptides on isolated basilar arteries from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats
Molecular cloning of a novel human receptor gene with homology to the rat adrenomedullin receptor and high expression in heart and immune system
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