Adsorptive removal of Pb(II) by activated carbon prepared from Spartina alterniflora: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics

Bioresource Technology
Kunquan Li, Xiaohua Wang


Low-cost activated carbon was prepared from Spartina alterniflora by phosphoric acid activation for the removal of Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solution. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the adsorption was studied. The obtained data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The kinetic data were fitted with the Lagergren-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. It was found that pH played a major role in the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(II) on S. alterniflora activated carbon (SAAC) calculated from Langmuir isotherm was more than 99 mg g(-1). The optimum pH range for the removal of Pb(II) was 4.8-5.6. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to best describe the experimental data. The kinetic rates were best fitted to the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic study showed the adsorption was a spontaneous exothermic process.


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