In this article, we review a number of topics that we believe reflect new and exciting aspects of fetal echocardiography. These new advances include early fetal cardiovascular imaging around 14 weeks, the utility of three/four dimensional imaging technology for the fetus, and finally the utility of fetal echocardiography for antenatal and perinatal care of congenital heart diseases to improve and optimize outcome. Finally, we briefly discussed future directions in fetal cardiac intervention.
Fetal echocardiography. A tool for evaluation of in utero cardiac arrhythmias and monitoring of in utero therapy: analysis of 71 patients
Quantitative real-time cross-sectional echocardiography in the developing normal humam fetus and newborn
Qualitative real-time cross-sectional echocardiographic imaging of the human fetus during the second half of pregnancy
In utero pulmonary artery and aortic growth and potential for progression of pulmonary outflow tract obstruction in tetralogy of Fallot
Reactivity of the human fetal pulmonary circulation to maternal hyperoxygenation increases during the second half of pregnancy: a randomized study
Detection of transposition of the great arteries in fetuses reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality
Sensitivity and specificity of prenatal features of physiological shunts to predict neonatal clinical status in transposition of the great arteries
Rapid full volume data acquisition by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for assessment of left ventricular indexes in children: a validation study compared with magnetic resonance imaging
Predictive value of fetal pulmonary venous flow patterns in identifying the need for atrial septoplasty in the newborn with hypoplastic left ventricle
Early fetal echocardiography: heart biometry and visualization of cardiac structures between 10 and 15 weeks' gestation
How accurately, reproducibly, and efficiently can we measure left ventricular indices using M-mode, 2-dimensional, and 3-dimensional echocardiography in children?
In utero valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia with hypoplastic right ventricle: techniques and outcomes
Measurement of the great vessels in the mediastinum could help distinguish true from false-positive coarctation of the aorta in the third trimester
Predictors of technical success and postnatal biventricular outcome after in utero aortic valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Vasoreactive response to maternal hyperoxygenation in the fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Perinatal and early surgical outcome for the fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a 5-year single institutional experience
Accuracy of four-dimensional spatiotemporal image correlation echocardiography in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects
Collaborative study on 4-dimensional echocardiography for the diagnosis of fetal heart defects: the COFEHD study
Added value of three-/four-dimensional ultrasound in offline analysis and diagnosis of congenital heart disease
Prediction and perinatal management of severely restrictive atrial septum in fetuses with critical left heart obstruction: clinical experience using pulmonary venous Doppler analysis
Feasibility of single-beat full-volume capture real-time three-dimensional echocardiography and auto-contouring algorithm for quantification of left ventricular volume: validation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Real time three-dimensional echocardiography for evaluation of congenital heart defects: state of the art
Pulmonary outflow tract obstruction in fetuses with complex congenital heart disease: predicting the need for neonatal intervention
Comparison of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography and spatiotemporal image correlation in assessment of fetal interventricular septum
Quantitation of fetal heart function with tissue Doppler velocity imaging-reference values for color tissue Doppler velocities and comparison with pulsed wave tissue Doppler velocities
Prenatal detection of structural cardiac defects and presence of associated anomalies: a retrospective observational study of 1262 fetal echocardiograms
Early detection of fetal cardiac abnormalities: how effective is it and how should we manage these patients?
The Ultrasonic Microsurgical Anatomical Comparative Study of the CHD Fetuses and Their Clinical Significance
Normal ranges for fetal electrocardiogram values for the healthy fetus of 18-24 weeks of gestation: a prospective cohort study
Assessment of flow distribution in the mouse fetal circulation at late gestation by high-frequency Doppler ultrasound
A Combined Independent Source Separation and Quality Index Optimization Method for Fetal ECG Extraction from Abdominal Maternal Leads
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.