Aetiology of type 1 diabetes: Physiological growth in children affects disease progression

Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Oskar Skog, Olle Korsgren

Abstract

The prevailing view is that type 1 diabetes (T1D) develops as a consequence of a severe decline in β-cell mass resulting from T-cell-mediated autoimmunity; however, progression from islet autoantibody seroconversion to overt diabetes and finally to total loss of C-peptide production occurs in most affected individuals only slowly over many years or even decades. This slow disease progression should be viewed in relation to the total β-cell mass of only 0.2 to 1.5 g in adults without diabetes. Focal lesions of acute pancreatitis with accumulation of leukocytes, often located around the ducts, are frequently observed in people with recent-onset T1D, and most patients display extensive periductal fibrosis, the end stage of inflammation. An injurious inflammatory adverse event, occurring within the periductal area, may have negative implications for islet neogenesis, dependent on stem cells residing within or adjacent to the ductal epithelium. This could in part prevent the 30-fold increase in β-cell mass that would normally occur during the first 20 years of life. This increase occurs in order to maintain glucose metabolism during the physiological increases in insulin production that are required to balance the 20-fold increase i...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Teens
Infant Development
Diabetes, Autoimmune
Sexual Maturation
Disease Progression
Acute Pancreatitis
Autoimmune Diseases
Bile Duct Structure
Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent

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