Apr 5, 2003

Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources

Environment International
Natalie AndersonCliff Davidson

Abstract

Ammonia is a basic gas and one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. When emitted, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulfur to form particles, typically in the fine particle size range. Roughly half of the PM(2.5) mass in eastern United States is ammonium sulfate, according to the US EPA. Results from recent studies of PM(2.5) show that these fine particles are typically deposited deep in the lungs and may lead to increased morbidity and/or mortality. Also, these particles are in the size range that will degrade visibility. Ammonia emission inventories are usually constructed by multiplying an activity level by an experimentally determined emission factor for each source category. Typical sources of ammonia include livestock, fertilizer, soils, forest fires and slash burning, industry, vehicles, the oceans, humans, pets, wild animals, and waste disposal and recycling activities. Livestock is the largest source category in the United States, with waste from livestock responsible for about 3x10(9) kg of ammonia in 1995. Volatilization of ammonia from livestock waste is dependent on many parameters, and thus emission factors are difficult to predict. Despite a seasonal variation in these va...Continue Reading

  • References10
  • Citations14
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Mentioned in this Paper

Urine
Fertilizers
Morbidity Aspects
Closed Comedone
Lung
Ammonium carbonate
Air Pollutants, Environmental
Waste Disposal, Solid
Sulfur
Avian Crop

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