Alkaliphilic bacteria typically grow well at pH 9, with the most extremophilic strains growing up to pH values as high as pH 12-13. Interest in extreme alkaliphiles arises because they are sources of useful, stable enzymes, and the cells themselves can be used for biotechnological and other applications at high pH. In addition, alkaline hydrothermal vents represent an early evolutionary niche for alkaliphiles and novel extreme alkaliphiles have also recently been found in alkaline serpentinizing sites. A third focus of interest in alkaliphiles is the challenge raised by the use of proton-coupled ATP synthases for oxidative phosphorylation by non-fermentative alkaliphiles. This creates a problem with respect to tenets of the chemiosmotic model that remains the core model for the bioenergetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Each of these facets of alkaliphilic bacteria will be discussed with a focus on extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus strains. These alkaliphilic bacteria have provided a cogent experimental system to probe adaptations that enable their growth and oxidative phosphorylation at high pH. Adaptations are clearly needed to enable secreted or partially exposed enzymes or protein complexes to function at the high external p...Continue Reading
Two unrelated alkaliphilic Bacillus species possess identical deviations in sequence from those of other prokaryotes in regions of F0 proposed to be involved in proton translocation through the ATP synthase
Organization and nucleotide sequence of the atp genes encoding the ATP synthase from alkaliphilic Bacillus firmus OF4
Characterization of structural component of cell walls of alkalophilic strain of Bacillus sp. C-125. Preparation of poly(gamma-L-glutamate) from cell wall component
Characterization of a gene responsible for the Na+/H+ antiporter system of alkalophilic Bacillus species strain C-125
The pha gene cluster of Rhizobium meliloti involved in pH adaptation and symbiosis encodes a novel type of K+ efflux system
Analyses of a Bacillus subtilis homologue of the Na+/H+ antiporter gene which is important for pH homeostasis of alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. C-125
mrp, a multigene, multifunctional locus in Bacillus subtilis with roles in resistance to cholate and to Na+ and in pH homeostasis
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses of pH-dependent protein expression in facultatively alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 lead to characterization of an S-layer protein with a role in alkaliphily.
Complete genome sequence of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans and genomic sequence comparison with Bacillus subtilis
Pseudomonas alcaliphila sp. nov., a novel facultatively psychrophilic alkaliphile isolated from seawater
Thermo-alkali-stable catalases from newly isolated Bacillus sp. for the treatment and recycling of textile bleaching effluents
Purification and biochemical characterization of the F1Fo-ATP synthase from thermoalkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain TA2.A1.
Alkalimonas amylolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Alkalimonas delamerensis gen. nov., sp. nov., novel alkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes in China and East Africa
Replacement of amino acid sequence features of a- and c-subunits of ATP synthases of Alkaliphilic Bacillus with the Bacillus consensus sequence results in defective oxidative phosphorylation and non-fermentative growth at pH 10.5.
The voltage-gated Na+ channel NaVBP has a role in motility, chemotaxis, and pH homeostasis of an alkaliphilic Bacillus
MotPS is the stator-force generator for motility of alkaliphilic Bacillus, and its homologue is a second functional Mot in Bacillus subtilis
Low archaeal diversity linked to subseafloor geochemical processes at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Alkaline anaerobic respiration: isolation and characterization of a novel alkaliphilic and metal-reducing bacterium
A phylogenetic analysis of Wadi el Natrun soda lake cellulase enrichment cultures and identification of cellulase genes from these cultures
Cryo-electron microscopy reveals native polymeric cell wall structure in Bacillus subtilis 168 and the existence of a periplasmic space
Comparison of bacterial communities in the alkaline gut segment among various species of higher termites
Characterization of a multigene-encoded sodium/hydrogen antiporter (sha) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: its involvement in pathogenesis
Structure and expression of the atp operon coding for F1F0-ATP synthase from the antibiotic-producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727
Structural investigations of the membrane-embedded rotor ring of the F-ATPase from Clostridium paradoxum
A specific adaptation in the a subunit of thermoalkaliphilic F1FO-ATP synthase enables ATP synthesis at high pH but not at neutral pH values
A tridecameric c ring of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase from the thermoalkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain TA2.A1 facilitates ATP synthesis at low electrochemical proton potential
The product of uncI gene in F1Fo-ATP synthase operon plays a chaperone-like role to assist c-ring assembly
The Vibrio cholerae Mrp system: cation/proton antiport properties and enhancement of bile salt resistance in a heterologous host
Microbiological analysis of the population of extremely haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria dominating in lab-scale sulfide-removing bioreactors
Characterization of the Functionally Critical AXAXAXA and PXXEXXP Motifs of the ATP Synthase c-Subunit from an Alkaliphilic Bacillus
The c13 ring from a thermoalkaliphilic ATP synthase reveals an extended diameter due to a special structural region
Aqueous accessibility to the transmembrane regions of subunit c of the Escherichia coli F1F0 ATP synthase
The halophilic alkalithermophile Natranaerobius thermophilus adapts to multiple environmental extremes using a large repertoire of Na(K)/H antiporters
Bioelectricity generation by a Gram-positive Corynebacterium sp. strain MFC03 under alkaline condition in microbial fuel cells
Biodiversity of poly-extremophilic Bacteria: does combining the extremes of high salt, alkaline pH and elevated temperature approach a physico-chemical boundary for life?
The ATP synthase a-subunit of extreme alkaliphiles is a distinct variant: mutations in the critical alkaliphile-specific residue Lys-180 and other residues that support alkaliphile oxidative phosphorylation.
Chemical reactivities of cysteine substitutions in subunit a of ATP synthase define residues gating H+ transport from each side of the membrane.
The direct electrocatalysis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid excreted by Pseudomonas alcaliphila under alkaline condition in microbial fuel cells
Genome of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 reveals adaptations that support the ability to grow in an external pH range from 7.5 to 11.4
Life under multiple extreme conditions: diversity and physiology of the halophilic alkalithermophiles
A novel cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Alkaliphilic Amphibacillus sp. NPST-10: purification and properties
Restricted diffusion of OXPHOS complexes in dynamic mitochondria delays their exchange between cristae and engenders a transitory mosaic distribution
Roles of AtpI and two YidC-type proteins from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 in ATP synthase assembly and nonfermentative growth
Bacterial communities associated with subsurface geochemical processes in continental serpentinite springs
The c-ring stoichiometry of ATP synthase is adapted to cell physiological requirements of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4
Microbial diversity in The Cedars, an ultrabasic, ultrareducing, and low salinity serpentinizing ecosystem
Cardiolipin is dispensable for oxidative phosphorylation and non-fermentative growth of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4.
Lateral pH gradient between OXPHOS complex IV and F(0)F(1) ATP-synthase in folded mitochondrial membranes
The c-ring ion binding site of the ATP synthase from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 is adapted to alkaliphilic lifestyle
Physiological and genomic features of highly alkaliphilic hydrogen-utilizing Betaproteobacteria from a continental serpentinizing site
Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins
Annotation and functional assignment of the genes for the C30 carotenoid pathways from the genomes of two bacteria: Bacillus indicus and Bacillus firmus
Ionic selectivity and thermal adaptations within the voltage-gated sodium channel family of alkaliphilic Bacillus
Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus alcalophilus AV1934, a Classic Alkaliphile Isolated from Human Feces in 1934
Insights into environmental controls on microbial communities in a continental serpentinite aquifer using a microcosm-based approach
Nonconventional cation-coupled flagellar motors derived from the alkaliphilic Bacillus and Paenibacillus species
Analysis of the Complete Genome of the Alkaliphilic and Phototrophic Firmicute Heliorestis convoluta Strain HHT
Pressure Sensitivity of SynGAP/PSD-95 Condensates as a Model for Postsynaptic Densities and Its Biophysical and Neurological Ramifications.
Alkalibaculum sporogenes sp. nov., isolated from a terrestrial mud volcano and emended description of the genus Alkalibaculum
Alteration of the Conformational Dynamics of a DNA Hairpin by α-Synuclein in the Presence of Aqueous Two-Phase Systems.
What Are the Multi-Omics Mechanisms for Adaptation by Microorganisms to High Alkalinity? A Transcriptomic and Proteomic Study of a Bacillus Strain with Industrial Potential
Influence of Hydrogen Electron Donor, Alkaline pH, and High Nitrate Concentrations on Microbial Denitrification: A Review
Characterization and Genome Analysis of the First Facultatively Alkaliphilic Thermodesulfovibrio Isolated from the Deep Terrestrial Subsurface
A Hydrophobic Small Protein, BpOF4_01690, Is Critical for Alkaliphily of Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4
Adaptation, production, and biotechnological potential of cold-adapted proteases from psychrophiles and psychrotrophs: recent overview
Nitrate and nitrite bacterial reduction at alkaline pH and high nitrate concentrations, comparison of acetate versus dihydrogen as electron donors
Biotechnological, biomedical, and agronomical applications of plant protease inhibitors with high stability: A systematic review
Anaerotalea alkaliphila gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterium isolated from a terrestrial mud volcano.
Alkalicella caledoniensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from 'La Crouen' alkaline thermal spring, New Caledonia.
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