All About the RNA: Interferon-Stimulated Genes That Interfere With Viral RNA Processes.

Frontiers in Immunology
Emily Yang, Melody M H Li

Abstract

Interferon (IFN) signaling induces the expression of a wide array of genes, collectively referred to as IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that generally function to inhibit viral replication. RNA viruses are frequently targeted by ISGs through recognition of viral replicative intermediates and molecular features associated with viral genomes, or the lack of molecular features associated with host mRNAs. The ISGs reviewed here primarily inhibit viral replication in an RNA-centric manner, working to sense, degrade, or repress expression of viral RNA. This review focuses on dissecting how these ISGs exhibit multiple antiviral mechanisms, often through use of varied co-factors, highlighting the complexity of the type I IFN response. Specifically, these ISGs can mediate antiviral effects through viral RNA degradation, viral translation inhibition, or both. While the OAS/RNase L pathway globally degrades RNA and arrests translation, ISG20 and ZAP employ targeted RNA degradation and translation inhibition to block viral replication. Meanwhile, SHFL targets translation by inhibiting -1 ribosomal frameshifting, which is required by many RNA viruses. Finally, a number of E3 ligases inhibit viral transcription, an attractive antiviral target du...Continue Reading

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Citations

Jun 4, 2021·Oncogenesis·Heba Allah M AlsheikhRajeev S Samant

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
GTPases
RNA-seq
two-hybrid
ubiquitination
affinity-purification

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