Jan 1, 1977

Alternatives to female sterilization

International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
S S RatnamS C Chew


With national policies aimed at reaching zero population growth in the shortest possible time, many countries have introduced restrictive legislation and disincentive programs in an attempt to decrease family size norms to 2 or 3 children. As a result, younger women of lower parity are being sterilized, with consequences that will be seen in the years to come. Although female sterilization is usually associated with minimal complications and side effects and is highly effective without continuing motivation or promotion, it has the disadvantage of causing permanent, essentially irreversible sterility. Therefore, it will not be readily acceptable to a large portion of the population. For many women, alternatives must be sought. Reversible methods of female or male sterilization, longacting systemic contraceptives, longacting implants, and immunization against implantation or sperm antigens are potential alternatives, but all are still in experimental stages of development. Intrauterine devices and injectables are the 2 most effective alternatives now available. The use of intrauterine devices with abortion as a backup in case of contraceptive failure ranks high as an alternative to female sterilization.

  • References
  • Citations


  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.
  • References
  • Citations


  • This paper may not have been cited yet.

Mentioned in this Paper

Contraceptive Effect
Adgyn Medro
Dall Sheep
Blastocyst Implantation, Natural
Sexual Sterilization
Immunization Domain

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Autism: Motor Learning

A common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the impairment of motor control and learning, consistent with perturbation in cerebellar function. Find the latest research on ASD and motor learning here.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

Protein Localization in Disease & Therapy

Localization of proteins is critical for ensuring the correct location for physiological functioning. If an error occurs, diseases such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative disorders and cancers can present. Therapies are being explored to target this mislocalization. Here is the latest research on protein localization in disease and therapy.

Genetic Screens in Bacteria

Genetic screens can provide important information on gene function as well as the molecular events that underlie a biological process or pathway. Here is the latest research on genetic screens in bacteria.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiac Imaging

Artificial intelligence (ai) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (cv) medicine in cardiac imaging analysis. Here is the latest research.

Related Papers

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
D A Grimes
Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
O Graesslin, C Quereux
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
B L Xiao, B G Zhao
© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved