Ambulance use in Pakistan: an analysis of surveillance data from emergency departments in Pakistan

BMC Emergency Medicine
Nukhba ZiaJ A Razzak


The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value < 0.001). The most common presenting complaint in the ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value < 0.001) adjusted for gender...Continue Reading


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