Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare and potentially catastrophic condition that is unique to pregnancy. The presentation may range from relatively subtle clinical events to sudden maternal cardiac arrest. Despite an increased awareness of the condition, it remains a leading cause of maternal mortality. The underlying mechanisms of amniotic fluid embolism are poorly understood, but current theories support an immune-based mechanism which is triggered by potentially small amounts of amniotic fluid gaining access to the maternal circulation. This can result in a wide spectrum of clinical findings, with cardiovascular and haematological disturbances being prominent. The management of a suspected episode of amniotic fluid embolism is generally considered to be supportive, although in centres with specific expertise, echocardiography may assist in guiding management. Whilst outcomes after an episode of amniotic fluid embolism are still concerning, mortality would appear to have decreased in recent times, likely secondary to an improved awareness of the condition, advances in acute care and the inclusion of less severe episodes in case registries.
Successful treatment of postpartum shock caused by amniotic fluid embolism with cardiopulmonary bypass and pulmonary artery thromboembolectomy
Landmark article, Oct. 1941: Maternal pulmonary embolism by amniotic fluid as a cause of obstetric shock and unexpected deaths in obstetrics. By Paul E. Steiner and C. C. Lushbaugh
Squamous and trophoblastic cells in the maternal pulmonary circulation identified by invasive hemodynamic monitoring during the peripartum period
The importance of extensive sampling and examination of cervix in suspected cases of amniotic fluid embolism
A simple, noninvasive, sensitive method for diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism by monoclonal antibody TKH-2 that recognizes NeuAc alpha 2-6GalNAc
The use of inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin (IAP) in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary embolism
Two cases of hemorrhage secondary to amniotic fluid embolus managed with uterine artery embolization
Effect of amniotic fluid on coagulation and platelet function in pregnancy: an evaluation using thromboelastography
Amniotic-fluid embolism and medical induction of labour: a retrospective, population-based cohort study
Rapid reversal of critical haemodynamic compromise with nitric oxide in a parturient with amniotic fluid embolism
Incidence and risk factors of amniotic fluid embolisms: a population-based study on 3 million births in the United States
Complement C3a expression and tryptase degranulation as promising histopathological tests for diagnosing fatal amniotic fluid embolism
Chest computed tomography of a patient revealing severe hypoxia due to amniotic fluid embolism: a case report
Fatal factors of clinical manifestations and laboratory testing in patients with amniotic fluid embolism
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Anaesthetic deaths in the CMACE (Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries) Saving Mothers' Lives report 2006-08
Assessment of long-term knowledge retention following single-day simulation training for uncommon but critical obstetrical events
Successful resuscitation following amniotic fluid embolism in a patient undergoing induction of labour for late miscarriage
Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial
Making the case for obstetric "response teams" and simulation in labor and delivery: management of catastrophic amniotic fluid embolism during labor
Hyperfibrinolysis diagnosed by rotational thromboelastometry in a case of suspected amniotic fluid embolism
Successful inter-hospital transfer for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after an amniotic fluid embolism induced cardiac arrest
Current status of pregnancy-related maternal mortality in Japan: a report from the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan
Amniotic fluid embolism as a cause of maternal mortality in China between 1996 and 2013: a population-based retrospective study
Analysis of maternal death autopsies from the nationwide registration system of maternal deaths in Japan
Clinical course of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy-type amniotic fluid embolism: A report of three cases
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