An appraisal of "supernormal" A-V conduction
Certain temporal patterns of A-V and V-A transmission in experimental preparations resemble phenomena attributed to "supernormal" conduction in the clinic. Detailed study of the properties of the A-V transmission system in such experiments reveals alternative explanations in which supernormality is clearly eliminated. By application of similar principles, supernormality can be eliminated as a factor in most if not all of the published examples. Three major categories can be discerned: (1) occult 2:1 A-V block, in which an idioventricular beat "retracts" an otherwise refractory barrier within the A-V node; (2) alternation between dissociated intranodal transmission pathways; and (3) "ventriculophasic" (vagal) depression of nodal conductivity.
Some characteristics of transmembrane potentials of AV nodal cells during propagation of premature beats
Supernormal phase of atrioventricular (A-V) conduction due to potassium. A-V alternans with first-degree A-V block
A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF EPINEPHRINE AND VAGAL STIMULATION UPON THE REFRACTORY PERIODS OF THE A-V NODE AND THE BUNDLE OF HIS
Subthreshold atrial pacing in patients with a left-sided accessory pathway: an effective new method for terminating reciprocating tachycardia
Electrocardiography of arrhythmias: from deductive analysis to laboratory confirmation--twenty-five years of progress
Supernormal conduction in the accessory pathway of patients with overt or concealed ventricular pre-excitation
Terminology and electrophysiologic concepts in cardiac arrhythmias. VI. Phase 3 block and phase 4 block. Part 2
Relationship between different recovery curves representing rate-dependent AV nodal function in rabbit heart
Two or more intra AV nodal pathways in association with either a James or Kent extranodal bypass in 3 patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
Anterograde and retrograde bradycardiac block in the His-Purkinje system. Finding in a patient with acute myocardial infarction
The supernormal phase of intraventricular conduction: normalization of intraventricular conduction of premature atrial beats
An unusual onset of supraventricular tachycardia with 2:1 atrioventricular block: what is the mechanism?
Effect of concealed anterograde impulse penetration on retrograde atrioventricular nodal conduction in man
Preceding His-atrial interval as a determinant of atrioventricular nodal conduction time in the human and rabbit heart
"Supernormal" phase of atrioventricular conduction with concealed capture beats. Significance of odd numbers of P waves between capture beats
Periodic variation in A-V conduction time: the 'supernormal' phase of A-V conduction. A study in differential dual A-V pathway conductivity and refractoriness
Unified rate-dependent atrioventricular nodal function: consistent recovery and fatigue properties revealed with S1S2S3 protocols and different recovery indexes
Paroxysmal atrioventricular block related to hypopolarization and spontaneous diastolic depolarization
"Supernormal" atrioventricular conduction revealing posterior wall myocardial infarction. Demonstration by timed biplane vectorcardiography
Atrioventricular sequential pacing: differential effect on retrograde conduction related to level of impulse collision
Electro-vectorcardiographic demonstration of rate-independent transient left posterior fascicular block
Electrophysiological demonstration of anterograde concealed conduction in accessory atrioventricular pathways capable only of retrograde conduction
Dependence of AV nodal function curves on the selected recovery index: pivotal role of pretest conduction time
"Supernormal conduction" of a premature impulse utilizing the fast pathway in a patient with dual atrioventricular nodal pathways
Unique electrophysiological properties of fast-slow atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia characterized by a shortening of retrograde conduction time via a slow pathway manifested during atrial induction.
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