DOI: 10.1101/19002923Aug 20, 2019Paper

An emergent, high-fatality lung disease in systemic juvenile arthritis

MedRxiv : the Preprint Server for Health Sciences
Vivian E SaperKathryn Phillippi


Objective To investigate characteristics and risk factors of a novel parenchymal lung disease, increasingly detected in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Methods In a multi-center retrospective study, 61 cases were investigated, using physician-reported clinical information and centralized analyses of radiologic, pathologic and genetic data. Results Lung disease (LD) was associated with distinctive features, including acute erythematous clubbing and a high frequency of anaphylactic reactions to the IL-6 inhibitor, tocilizumab. Serum ferritin elevation and/or significant lymphopenia preceded LD detection. The most prevalent chest CT pattern was septal thickening, involving the periphery of multiple lobes +/- ground glass opacities. Predominant pathology (23/36) was pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or endogenous lipoid pneumonia (PAP/ELP), with atypical features, including regional involvement and concomitant vascular changes. Apparent severe delayed drug hypersensitivity occurred in some cases. 5-year survival was 42%. Whole-exome sequencing (20/61) did not identify a novel monogenic defect PAP-related or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)-related mutations as likely primary cause. Trisomy 21 (T21) increased LD ...Continue Reading

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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