An MHV macrodomain mutant predicted to lack ADP-ribose binding activity is severely attenuated, indicating multiple roles for the macrodomain in coronavirus replication.

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Lynden S VothAnthony R. Fehr

Abstract

All coronaviruses (CoVs) contain a macrodomain, also termed Mac1, in non-structural protein 3 (nsp3) which binds and hydrolyzes ADP-ribose covalently attached to proteins. Despite several reports demonstrating that Mac1 is a prominent virulence factor, there is still a limited understanding of its cellular roles during infection. Currently, most of the information regarding the role of CoV Mac1 during infection is based on a single point mutant of a highly conserved asparagine-to-alanine mutation, which is known to largely eliminate Mac1 ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity. To determine if Mac1 ADP-ribose binding separately contributes to CoV replication, we compared the replication of a murine hepatitis virus (MHV) Mac1 mutant predicted to dramatically reduce ADP-ribose binding, D1329A, to the previously mentioned asparagine mutant, N1347A. D1329A and N1347A both replicated poorly in bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), were inhibited by PARP enzymes, and were highly attenuated in vivo . However, D1329A was significantly more attenuated than N1347A in all cell lines tested that were susceptible to MHV infection. In addition, D1329A retained some ability to block IFN-β transcript accumulation compared to N1347A, indicating that t...Continue Reading

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