Analysis and evaluation of trans,trans-muconic acid as a biomarker for benzene exposure

Journal of Chromatography. B, Biomedical Sciences and Applications
Gerhard SchererM Meger


Benzene is an important industrial chemical and, due to its occurrence in mineral oil and its formation in many combustion processes, a widespread environmental pollutant. Since benzene is hematoxic and has been classified as a human carcinogen, monitoring and control of benzene exposure is of importance. Although trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) was identified as a urinary metabolite of benzene at the beginning of this century, only recently has its application as a biomarker for occupational and environmental benzene exposure been investigated. The range of metabolic conversion of benzene to ttMA is about 2-25% and dependent on the benzene exposure level, simultaneous exposure to toluene, and probably also to genetic factors. For the quantitation of ttMA in urine, HPLC methods using UV and diode array detection as well as GC methods combined with MS or FID detection have been described. Sample pretreatment for both HPLC and GC analysis comprises centrifugation and enrichment by solid-phase extraction on anion-exchange sorbents. Described derivatization procedures prior to GC analysis include reaction with N,O-bis(trimethysilyl)acetamide, N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide, pentafluorobenzyl bromide and borontrifluoride-...Continue Reading


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