Sep 5, 2003

Analysis of Colubroidea snake venoms by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry: evolutionary and toxinological implications

Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM
Bryan G FryR Manjunatha Kini

Abstract

The evolution of the venomous function of snakes and the diversification of the toxins has been of tremendous research interest and considerable debate. It has become recently evident that the evolution of the toxins in the advanced snakes (Colubroidea) predated the evolution of the advanced, front-fanged delivery mechanisms. Historically, the venoms of snakes lacking front-fanged venom-delivery systems (conventionally grouped into the paraphyletic family Colubridae) have been largely neglected. In this study we used liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze a large number of venoms from a wide array of species representing the major advanced snake clades Atractaspididae, Colubrinae, Elapidae, Homalopsinae, Natricinae, Psammophiinae, Pseudoxyrhophiinae, Xenodontinae, and Viperidae. We also present the first sequences of toxins from Azemiops feae as well as additional toxin sequences from the Colubrinae. The large body of data on molecular masses and retention times thus assembled demonstrates a hitherto unsuspected diversity of toxins in all lineages, having implications ranging from clinical management of envenomings to venom evolution to the use of isolated toxins as leads for drug design and development...Continue Reading

  • References31
  • Citations91

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Subfamily Xenodontinae
Snake Bites
Colubridae
Snake Venoms
Subfamily Natricinae
Toxin
Azemiops feae
Phylogeny
Mass Spectrometry
Sequencing

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.