Patients with Parkinson's disease performed several different stereotyped elbow flexion tasks, and the electromyographic (EMG) patterns from biceps and triceps were compared with previously established normal standards. The EMG pattern during a smooth flexion task was almost always abnormal and was characterized by alternating activity in biceps and triceps. The EMG patterns during a fast flexion task were also usually abnormal although they were always composed of bursts of EMG activity of normal duration appearing alternately in the agonist and antagonist muscles. These bursts, associated with movements of the limb, have a superficially similar appearance to the EMG bursts seen with tremor-at-rest, but certain physiological differences are demonstrated. This study demonstrates that both slow (ramp) and fast (ballistic) movements are clearly abnormal in these patients with disease of the basal ganglia. In a task designed to investigate antagonist inhibition before agonist activity, a majority of the patients performed normally. This suggests that, contrary to previous claims, slowness of movement (akinesia/bradykinesia) is not due either to failure to relax or to rigidity of antagonist muscle.
Visual "closed-loop" and "open-loop" characteristics of voluntary movement in patients with Parkinsonism and intention tremor
Ballistic and corrective movements on an aiming task. Intention tremor and parkinsonian movement disorders compared
A simple view of Parkinsonian tremor. Electrical stimulation of cortex adjacent to the Rolandic fissure in awake man
Disturbances in the voluntary recruitment order of anterior tibial motor units in bradykinesia of Parkinsonism
Changes in handwriting resulting from bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease
The relation between EMG activity and kinematic parameters strongly supports a role of the action tremor in parkinsonian bradykinesia
Open interconnected model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry and its relevance to the clinical syndrome of Huntington's disease
Velocity control in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative analysis of isochrony in scribbling movements
Dynamic joint analysis as a method to document coordination disabilities associated with Parkinson's disease
Repetitive paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation affects corticospinal excitability and finger tapping in Parkinson's disease
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has a beneficial effect on bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease
Reaction time of patients with Parkinson's disease, with reference to asymmetry of neurological signs
Changes in the relationship between movement velocity and movement distance in primary focal hand dystonia
Auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials (AEPs and SEPs) and ballistic movements in Parkinson disease
Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex
Precise onset detection of human motor responses using a whitening filter and the log-likelihood-ratio test
Antiparkinson medications improve agonist activation but not antagonist inhibition during sequential reaching movements
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.
Basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (MDS)
The basal ganglia is comprised of the neostriatum, the external and internal pallidal segments, the subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. The basal ganglia circuitry is responsible for the correct execution of voluntary movements and is implicated in Parkinson's disease. Here is the latest research investigating the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease.