Anatomy in the Third Reich: an outline, part 3. The science and ethics of anatomy in National Socialist Germany and postwar consequences

Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists
Sabine Hildebrandt

Abstract

Anatomists in National Socialist (NS) Germany did research on materials from animals and humans, including tissues from the bodies of NS victims. The research was competent but rarely innovative. This may be due to the isolation of the German research community from international developments, as well as to the dismissal of a great number of successful anatomists for racial or political reasons. Other research was unproductive because of its foundation in the pseudoscience of racial hygiene. Anatomists in the Third Reich acted according to a new set of medical ethics favored by the NS regime. Not the individual human being but the "body of the people" as a whole was the object of this ethics. Every action was ethical that ensured the health of the German people, including sterilization, so-called euthanasia, and finally mass murder. Anatomists made use of the opportunities given to them by the NS regime, which led to the postmortem utilization of the bodies of NS victims. After the war, most anatomists retained their positions and NS history was not discussed until the later 20th century. Since then, historical research and public discussions have led to an increased awareness of questions of ethics in anatomy. The history of a...Continue Reading

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Citations

May 21, 2013·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Sabine Hildebrandt
Sep 4, 2012·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Sabine Hildebrandt
May 9, 2012·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Susanne Ude-KoellerChristoph Viebahn
Apr 10, 2012·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Sigrid Oehler-KleinVolker Roelcke
Apr 27, 2012·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Thorsten Noack
Mar 1, 2012·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Christoph RediesSusanne Zimmermann
Feb 7, 2012·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·William E Seidelman
Oct 7, 2011·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Sabine Hildebrandt, Christoph Redies
Oct 15, 2011·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Sabine Hildebrandt
Mar 23, 2011·Medicina clínica·Esteban González-López, Esther Cuerda-Galindo
Mar 13, 2016·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Dirk Alvermann, Jan Mittenzwei
Feb 20, 2010·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·William E Seidelman
Mar 3, 2010·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·David J Williams
Dec 10, 2009·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·Gerhard Aumüller, Reinhard Hildebrand
Apr 10, 2016·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Raphael Toledano
Jun 29, 2015·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Andreas Winkelmann
Nov 14, 2016·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·R PabstV C Pabst
Dec 23, 2011·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·Stephen W Carmichael
Sep 4, 2013·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·Sabine Hildebrandt
Jun 8, 2012·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·Sabine Hildebrandt
May 15, 2010·Science and Engineering Ethics·Eddie Conlon, Henk Zandvoort
Dec 15, 2012·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·Sabine Hildebrandt
Jan 26, 2011·Anatomical Sciences Education·Thomas H Champney
Nov 1, 2011·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·S Hildebrandt
Aug 29, 2012·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·Walter KrausWerner Platzer
Jan 6, 2021·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Erich BrennerChristian Lechner
Nov 11, 2020·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Andrew YeeHoward A Israel
Feb 17, 2021·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Aron EmmiRaffaele De Caro
Apr 5, 2019·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Herwig Czech, Erich Brenner

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