Cardiovascular diseases are predicted to be the most common cause of death worldwide by 2020. Here we show that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) maps to a defined quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the X chromosome in three different rat models of hypertension. In all hypertensive rat strains, ACE2 messenger RNA and protein expression were markedly reduced, suggesting that ace2 is a candidate gene for this QTL. Targeted disruption of ACE2 in mice results in a severe cardiac contractility defect, increased angiotensin II levels, and upregulation of hypoxia-induced genes in the heart. Genetic ablation of ACE on an ACE2 mutant background completely rescues the cardiac phenotype. But disruption of ACER, a Drosophila ACE2 homologue, results in a severe defect of heart morphogenesis. These genetic data for ACE2 show that it is an essential regulator of heart function in vivo.
Chromosomal mapping of two genetic loci associated with blood-pressure regulation in hereditary hypertensive rats
Cloning and expression of an evolutionary conserved single-domain angiotensin converting enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster.
Development, genotype and phenotype of a new colony of the Sabra hypertension prone (SBH/y) and resistant (SBN/y) rat model of slat sensitivity and resistance
Neuroprotective effects of NPS 846, a novel N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after closed head trauma in rats
Regulation and function of tinman during dorsal mesoderm induction and heart specification in Drosophila
The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes.
The transgenic expression of highly inhibitory monomeric forms of phospholamban in mouse heart impairs cardiac contractility
A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase
A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9
A cardiac myocyte vascular endothelial growth factor paracrine pathway is required to maintain cardiac function
Vascular protective effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and their relation to clinical events
Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization
Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene polymorphisms with parameters of left ventricular hypertrophy in men. Results of the MONICA Augsburg echocardiographic substudy
siRNA silencing of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 reduced severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus replications in Vero E6 cells
It is time to reconsider the cardiovascular protection afforded by RAAS blockade -- overview of RAAS systems
Recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a new renin-angiotensin system peptidase for heart failure therapy
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in healthy human subjects
Working outside the system: an update on the unconventional behavior of the renin-angiotensin system components
Drosophila type XV/XVIII collagen mutants manifest integrin mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, which is improved by cyclosporin A and losartan
Nephroprotective effects of the endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonist darusentan in salt-sensitive genetic hypertension
Heart block, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins
High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of renin-angiotensin system peptides and most of their metabolic fragments
Renal ACE2 expression and activity is unaltered during established hypertension in adult SHRSP and TGR(mREN2)27
Comparison of the long-term effects of candesartan and olmesartan on plasma angiotensin II and left ventricular mass index in patients with hypertension
Loss of ACE2 accelerates time-dependent glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice
Cardiac Conduction System
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