Apr 9, 2020

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2: SARS-CoV-2 Receptor and Regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System

Circulation Research
Mahmoud GheblawiGavin Y Oudit

Abstract

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) has a multiplicity of physiological roles that revolve around its trivalent function: a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue. ACE2 has recently been identified as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, the infective agent responsible for COVID-19, providing a critical link between immunity, inflammation, ACE2, and cardiovascular disease. Although sharing a close evolutionary relationship with SARS-CoV, the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 differs in several key amino acid residues, allowing for stronger binding affinity with the human ACE2 receptor, which may account for the greater pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. The loss of ACE2 function following binding by SARS-CoV-2 is driven by endocytosis and activation of proteolytic cleavage and processing. The ACE2 system is a critical protective pathway against heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction including, myocardial infarction and hypertension, and against lung disease and diabetes. The control of gut dysbio...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Kidney
Dysbiosis
Myocardial Infarction
ACE2
Agonists
Lung
Agent
AGT
Heart Failure
Ejection Fraction (Finding)

Related Feeds

Cardiovascular Disease Pathophysiology

Cardiovascular disease involves several different processes that contribute to the pathological mechanism, including hyperglycemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension and more. Vasculature stability plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular disease pathophysiology here.

Cardiovascular Disorder in Diabetes

Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders and heart failure. Discover the latest research here.

Cardiovascular Inflammation

Inflammation plays a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, an understanding of these endogenous processes is critical for evaluating the risks and potential treatment strategies. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular inflammation here.