Animal welfare aspects in respect of the slaughter or killing of pregnant livestock animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses)

EFSA Journal
EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)Christoph Winckler

Abstract

This scientific opinion addresses animal welfare aspects of slaughtering of livestock pregnant animals. Term of Reference (ToR) 1 requested assessment of the prevalence of animals slaughtered in a critical developmental stage of gestation when the livestock fetuses might experience negative affect. Limited data on European prevalence and related uncertainties necessitated a structured expert knowledge elicitation (EKE) exercise. Estimated median percentages of animals slaughtered in the last third of gestation are 3%, 1.5%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 0.2% (dairy cows, beef cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, respectively). Pregnant animals may be sent for slaughter for health, welfare, management and economic reasons (ToR2); there are also reasons for farmers not knowing that animals sent for slaughter are pregnant. Measures to reduce the incidence are listed. ToR3 asked whether livestock fetuses can experience pain and other negative affect. The available literature was reviewed and, at a second multidisciplinary EKE meeting, judgements and uncertainty were elicited. It is concluded that livestock fetuses in the last third of gestation have the anatomical and neurophysiological structures required to experience negative affect (with 90-100% li...Continue Reading

References

Feb 1, 1977·Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology·Y RuckebuschB Eghbali
Mar 1, 1979·Early Human Development·J Dobbing, J Sands
Mar 1, 1979·Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology·G H McIntoshB S Hetzel
Nov 1, 1992·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·E C MallardP D Gluckman
Apr 1, 1991·Neuroscience Letters·A S Rosen, M E Morris
Jul 1, 1991·Early Human Development·S ReesRichard Harding
Apr 1, 1991·Journal of Applied Physiology·R SawaGordon G Power
Jul 8, 1990·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·H AkiyamaP L McGeer
Jan 1, 1987·International Journal of Immunopharmacology·L J RobichaudR L Adolphson
Jul 8, 1989·The Veterinary Record·A F Fraser
Jul 1, 1986·Journal of Applied Physiology·H RigattoD Cates
Feb 1, 1986·The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society·J S Robinson
Jul 1, 1986·Respiration Physiology·Philip J BergerJ E Maloney
Dec 1, 1985·Sleep·H H Szeto, D J Hinman
Mar 1, 1986·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Alan D Bocking, Richard Harding
Feb 1, 1972·Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology·Y Ruckebusch
Jan 1, 1972·The Journal of Physiology·G S DAWESR T Richards
Jan 1, 1974·Journal of Perinatal Medicine·K Karlson, I Kjellmer
Mar 1, 1973·Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe C: Anatomie, Histologie, Embryologie·H E Evans, W O Sack
Nov 1, 1969·The Journal of Endocrinology·J M BassettG D Thorburn
May 1, 1970·Radiology·A K Poznanski, P C La Rowe
Apr 1, 1983·Respiration Physiology·A R HohimerC M Machida
Jul 1, 1984·Equine Veterinary Journal·H Platt
Dec 1, 1984·Australian Veterinary Journal·B R WattI P Campbell
Oct 1, 1983·The Journal of Physiology·P D GluckmanB M Johnston
Apr 1, 1982·Respiration Physiology·A H JansenV Chernick
Feb 1, 1983·The Journal of Physiology·G S DAWESD W Walker
Nov 1, 1980·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·S IoffeV Chernick
Dec 1, 1981·The Anatomical Record·D G AlcornP M Robinson
May 1, 1980·Respiration Physiology·Richard HardingM E McClelland
Feb 18, 1995·The Veterinary Record·G H Singleton, H Dobson
Dec 1, 1994·Journal of Applied Physiology·B J KoosA M Adinolfi
Feb 1, 1994·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Y YoneyamaT Araki
Sep 15, 1995·The Journal of Physiology·J M BissonnetteS J Knopp
Dec 1, 1996·Journal of Applied Physiology·K T BallGordon G Power
Mar 1, 1997·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·H KeunenT H Hasaart
Jul 1, 1997·Journal of Applied Physiology·A S LijowskaB T Thach
Feb 12, 1998·Brain Research·B J KoosT F Murray
Apr 29, 1998·Science·R E Clark, L R Squire
Jan 1, 1997·Reproduction, Fertility, and Development·R E AlvaroH Rigatto
May 20, 1998·Journal of Neurophysiology·B J KoosL Kruger
Jan 29, 1999·Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A·I KohlerU Schatzmann
Jul 10, 1999·Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology·D A ShewmonP A Byrne
Jul 21, 1999·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·P W van DongenG B Theron
Mar 25, 2000·Theriogenology·R A AlostaJ D Collins
Jun 10, 2000·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·J M Bissonnette
Aug 6, 2000·British Journal of Anaesthesia·J P Desborough
Aug 23, 2000·Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology·R MaranaE Marana
Dec 13, 2000·Chemical Senses·B SchaalR Soussignan
Apr 3, 2001·Annual Review of Neuroscience·T V Dunwiddie, S A Masino
Aug 3, 2001·Neuroscience·B ClancyB L Finlay
Jan 29, 2002·Respiration Physiology·S DaugerJ Gallego
Jun 8, 2002·Reproduction, Fertility, and Development·Carole S WatsonAlan D Bocking
Jan 18, 2003·Sleep Medicine Reviews·Tarja Porkka-HeiskanenDag Stenberg
Apr 23, 2003·Muscle & Nerve·R KakarR P Grewal
Aug 23, 2003·Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation·Christian J HunterAlistair J Gunn
Sep 11, 2003·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·Alan D Bocking
Oct 28, 1955·The Journal of Physiology·G V BORNJ C MOTT
Aug 1, 1965·Journal of Animal Science·D E ULLREYE R MILLER
Sep 25, 2003·Sleep Medicine Reviews·Majid MirmiranRonald L Ariagno
Apr 1, 2004·Developmental Psychobiology·Nadège GruestBernard Hars
Jun 12, 2004·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·Sherly GeorgeLaura Bennet
Aug 11, 2004·The Veterinary Journal·D J Mellor, Kevin J Stafford
Nov 1, 2005·Animal Reproduction Science·María Alonso-SpilsburyMaría Elena Trujillo
Nov 5, 2005·Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews·David J MellorLaura Bennet
Apr 25, 2006·Psychophysiology·Ruth SchubertGabriel Curio
Apr 6, 2007·New Zealand Veterinary Journal·D J Mellor, T J Diesch
May 4, 2007·The Behavioral and Brain Sciences·Bjorn Merker
Jul 28, 2007·Journal of Applied Physiology·Guido WassinkAlistair J Gunn
Jan 22, 2008·The Veterinary Record·O SvendsenH E Jensen
Sep 8, 2009·Clinics in Perinatology·Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Apr 20, 2010·Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology·Robert A Darnall
Oct 12, 1946·Lancet·H BARCROFT, O G EDHOLM
Oct 26, 2011·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Carlo Valerio Bellieni, Giuseppe Buonocore
Nov 30, 2011·International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience·Renaud JardriDelphine Pins
Nov 1, 2008·Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience·M A GerritzenE Lambooij
Nov 1, 2010·Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience·T B JensenJ T Sørensen
Apr 20, 2012·Stress : the International Journal on the Biology of Stress·Florian RakersMatthias Schwab
Sep 21, 2013·Journal of Animal Science·T M Casey-TrottT M Widowski
Oct 10, 2013·Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism·Paul P DruryAlistair J Gunn
Mar 26, 2014·The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science·Harutaka MuraseYasuo Nambo
Jan 24, 1967·Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character·J W Dickerson, J Dobbing
Jul 10, 2014·New Zealand Veterinary Journal·N J Beausoleil, D J Mellor
Aug 19, 2014·Journal of Dairy Science·Bradley C LawsonWilliam J Silvia
Oct 29, 2014·Journal of Animal Science·T M Casey-TrottT M Widowski
Nov 12, 2014·Annual Review of Animal Biosciences·Matthew S Conrad, Rodney W Johnson
Apr 17, 2015·Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology·Robert D Hawkins, John H Byrne
May 29, 2015·Journal of Animal Science·J PayneM Schwarz
Nov 1, 2014·Animal Welfare·Madeleine L H CampbellPeter Sandøe

Citations

Jun 30, 2019·Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI·Søren Saxmose NielsenJørgen Steen Agerholm
Jan 16, 2019·EFSA Journal·European Food Safety AuthorityAnthony Hardy
Oct 14, 2020·Laboratory Animals·Rachael GregsonR Eddie Clutton
Dec 15, 2020·EFSA Journal·EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)Christoph Winckler
Nov 10, 2020·EFSA Journal·EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)Christoph Winckler

Methods Mentioned

BETA
pregnancy test
ELISA
sedation
captive

Related Concepts

Brain
Cattle
Fetus
Equus caballus
Judgment
Learning
Literature
Pain
Perception
Pregnant Women

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.

Rh Isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.

Enzyme Evolution

This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Pharmacology of Proteinopathies

This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Related Papers

The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Terry L Whiting
The Veterinary Record
J R Longstreeth, N D Udall
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
T Grandin
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved