Anorectal mucosal melanoma

Oncotarget
Giulia MalaguarneraSaverio Latteri

Abstract

Anorectal melanoma is an uncommon and aggressive mucosal melanocytic malignancy. Due to its rarity, the pre-operative diagnosis remains difficult. The first symptoms are non-specific such as anal bleeding, anal mass or pain. Although anorectal melanoma carries a poor prognosis; optimal therapeutics strategies are unclear. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment. The optimal surgical procedure for primary tumours is controversial and can vary from wide local excision or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) to an abdomino-perineal resection. A high degree of uncertainly exists regarding the benefit of radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The treatment of advanced melanoma is evolving rapidly with better understanding of the disease biology and immunology. Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of molecular determinants of response to target therapies and immunotherapy.

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Related Concepts

Malignant Neoplasms
Immunotherapy
Melanoma
Mucous Membrane
Neoplasms, Unknown Primary
Immunology
Widening
Bleeding from Anus
Operative Surgical Procedures
Excision

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