Anterograde axonal transport, transcytosis, and recycling of neurotrophic factors: the concept of trophic currencies in neural networks

Molecular Neurobiology
Christopher S von BartheldRafal Butowt


Traditional views of neurotrophic factor biology held that trophic factors are released from target cells, retrogradely transported along their axons, and rapidly degraded upon arrival in cell bodies. Increasing evidence indicates that several trophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), can move anterogradely along axons. They can escape the degradative pathway upon internalization and are recycled for future uses. Internalized ligands can move through intermediary cells by transcytosis, presumably by endocytosis via endosomes to the Golgi system, by trafficking of the factor to dendrites or by sorting into anterograde axonal transport with subsequent release from axon terminals and uptake by second- or third-order target neurons. Such data suggest the existence of multiple "trophic currencies," which may be used over several steps in neural networks to enable nurturing relationships between connected neurons or glial cells, not unlike currency exchanges between trading partners in the world economy. Functions of multistep transfer of trophic material through ...Continue Reading


Sep 25, 2009·Experimental Brain Research·Kurt GottmannVolkmar Lessmann
Sep 30, 2005·Anatomy and Embryology·Carla LuciniLuciana Castaldo
Apr 15, 2004·Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences·Gabriela Chytrova, James E Johnson
Jun 6, 2003·Progress in Neurobiology·Volkmar LessmannMarzia Malcangio
Dec 31, 2003·Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences·Elisabetta MennaLamberto Maffei
May 14, 2003·Progress in Retinal and Eye Research·Stefan IsenmannAlessandro Cellerino
Dec 4, 2012·Acta Pharmacologica Sinica·Philippe M D'Onofrio, Paulo D Koeberle
Sep 18, 2008·Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy·Masatoshi SuzukiClive N Svendsen
Sep 9, 2006·Journal of Neurotrauma·David J PhillipsMaria C Morganti-Kossmann
Feb 3, 2012·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Peter G H Clarke
Aug 16, 2006·Neuro-degenerative Diseases·Eva Ekestern
Jun 20, 2012·Molecular Neurodegeneration·Cheng FangGary Banker
May 22, 2009·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Anne Marie Wissman, Eliot A Brenowitz
Jul 11, 2006·Neuro-Signals·Klaus HeeseNoriko Inoue
Apr 23, 2005·Progress in Retinal and Eye Research·Rafael LindenMariana S Silveira
Aug 7, 2004·Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews·Weihong Pan, Abba J Kastin
Sep 22, 2015·Frontiers in Neuroscience·Josephine PinkernelleGerburg Keilhoff
Jul 26, 2016·Frontiers in Neuroanatomy·Clara Ortega-de San Luis, Alberto Pascual
Nov 24, 2007·Acta histochemica·Lucianna MaruccioLuciana Castaldo
Sep 2, 2010·Experimental Eye Research·Pamela B YangHans S Keirstead
Jun 23, 2004·Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences·Smita SaxenaAlex Krüttgen
Aug 21, 2010·Brain, Behavior, and Immunity·Junping XinKathryn J Jones
Jan 14, 2017·Translational Research : the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine·Il-Shin LeeKook In Park
May 4, 2005·Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences·Rafal Butowt, Christopher S von Bartheld
Jun 16, 2009·Neuroscience Research·Volkmar Lessmann, Tanja Brigadski
Jul 23, 2013·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·Juan Ramirez-CastanedaZoltan Mari
Oct 28, 2003·Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists·Lara D HutsonChi-Bin Chien
Apr 26, 2002·Neuroreport·Howard B Rind, Christopher S von Bartheld
Jan 6, 2004·Journal of Neurobiology·Christopher S von Bartheld

Related Concepts

Biochemical Pathway
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Presynaptic Terminals
Axonal Transport
Golgi Apparatus
Science of Morphology
Recombinant Brain-Derived Growth Factors

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Synapse Loss as Therapeutic Target in MS

As we age, the number of synapses present in the human brain starts to decline, but in neurodegenerative diseases this occurs at an accelerated rate. In MS, it has been shown that there is a reduction in synaptic density, which presents a potential target for treatment. Here is the latest research on synapse loss as a therapeutic target in MS.

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiac Imaging

Artificial intelligence (ai) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (cv) medicine in cardiac imaging analysis. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Social Learning

Social learning involves learning new behaviors through observation, imitation and modeling. Follow this feed to stay up to date on the latest research.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Single Cell Chromatin Profiling

Techniques like ATAC-seq and CUT&Tag have the potential to allow single cell profiling of chromatin accessibility, histones, and TFs. This will provide novel insight into cellular heterogeneity and cell states. Discover the latest research on single cell chromatin profiling here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.