Antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain that maximize breadth and resistance to viral escape.

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Tyler N StarrGyorgy Snell

Abstract

An ideal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody would resist viral escape 1-3 , have activity against diverse SARS-related coronaviruses 4-7 , and be highly protective through viral neutralization 8-11 and effector functions 12,13 . Understanding how these properties relate to each other and vary across epitopes would aid development of antibody therapeutics and guide vaccine design. Here, we comprehensively characterize escape, breadth, and potency across a panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD), including S309 4 , the parental antibody of the late-stage clinical antibody VIR-7831. We observe a tradeoff between SARS-CoV-2 in vitro neutralization potency and breadth of binding across SARS-related coronaviruses. Nevertheless, we identify several neutralizing antibodies with exceptional breadth and resistance to escape, including a new antibody (S2H97) that binds with high affinity to all SARS-related coronavirus clades via a unique RBD epitope centered on residue E516. S2H97 and other escape-resistant antibodies have high binding affinity and target functionally constrained RBD residues. We find that antibodies targeting the ACE2 receptor binding motif (RBM) typically have poor breadth and are readily escap...Continue Reading

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