PMID: 2811661Nov 1, 1989Paper

Antiphospholipid antibodies and the antiphospholipid syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus. A prospective analysis of 500 consecutive patients

D Alarcón-SegoviaS Ponce de León


Five hundred consecutive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were entered into a prospective study of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACLA) in their 3 major immunoglobulin isotypes and followed thereafter with repeated testing for a mean period of nearly 8 months. Manifestations of SLE that were strongly associated with ACLA included venous thrombosis (particularly when recurrent), thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, recurrent fetal loss, and leg ulcers. Other manifestations found to be associated with ACLA were arterial occlusions, transverse myelitis, and pulmonary hypertension. Conversely, we found no relationship between ACLA and migraine, convulsions, transient ischemic attacks, psychoses, or avascular necrosis of bone. No relationship was found between the presence of ACLA and that of anti-DNA antibodies studied in the same serum sample. Association with ACLA grew stronger and titers became higher in patients with several of the associated manifestations. Statistical analyses revealed the existence of a syndrome, the antiphospholipid syndrome, comprising 2 or more manifestations in conjunction with ACLA titers 5 standard deviations above the mean of normal control subjects, particularly if ACLA had been positive ...Continue Reading


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Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.