aPC/PAR1 confers endothelial anti-apoptotic activity via a discrete, β-arrestin-2-mediated SphK1-S1PR1-Akt signaling axis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Olivia Molinar-InglisJoAnn Trejo


Endothelial dysfunction is associated with vascular disease and results in disruption of endothelial barrier function and increased sensitivity to apoptosis. Currently, there are limited treatments for improving endothelial dysfunction. Activated protein C (aPC), a promising therapeutic, signals via protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and mediates several cytoprotective responses, including endothelial barrier stabilization and anti-apoptotic responses. We showed that aPC-activated PAR1 signals preferentially via β-arrestin-2 (β-arr2) and dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) scaffolds rather than G proteins to promote Rac1 activation and barrier protection. However, the signaling pathways utilized by aPC/PAR1 to mediate anti-apoptotic activities are not known. aPC/PAR1 cytoprotective responses also require coreceptors; however, it is not clear how coreceptors impact different aPC/PAR1 signaling pathways to drive distinct cytoprotective responses. Here, we define a β-arr2-mediated sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1)-sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1)-Akt signaling axis that confers aPC/PAR1-mediated protection against cell death. Using human cultured endothelial cells, we found that endogenous PAR1 and S1PR1 coexist in caveolin-1 (Cav1)-rich ...Continue Reading


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