Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Enzyme, Catalytic Polypeptide-Like Gene Expression, RNA Editing, and MicroRNAs Regulation

Methods in Molecular Biology
Wei Cao, Wei Wu


Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) protein family is encoded by eleven genes located in human genome. APOBECs are a family of evolutionarily conserved cytidine deaminases in vertebrates, and particularly in mammals. APOBECs play key roles in innate immunity against viral infection and retrotransposons. Subtypes of APOBEC3 can cause specific mutations in RNA and DNA at distinct preferred nucleotide contexts in human cancer. The pervasive APOBEC3s activation in the host genome converts cytosine to uracile on single-stranded DNA, which has been suggested to depend on ATR/chk1 pathways. In this chapter, we review the expression profiling of APOBEC expression in normal and disease states, discuss how microRNAs interact with APOBEC gene family, and post-transcriptionally regulate APOBEC gene expression in the APOBECA-B fusion allele and APOBEC-mediated RNA editing. It is reasonable to speculate targeting specific microRNAs may reduce host genome mutagenesis via inactivation of APOBEC deaminases.


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