DOI: 10.1101/494831Dec 12, 2018Paper

Application of CNTF or FGF-2 increases the number of M2-like macrophages after optic nerve injury in adult Rana pipiens

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Rosa E BlancoJ M Blagburn


We have previously shown that a single application of the growth factors ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) to the crushed optic nerve of the frog, Rana pipiens, increases the numbers and elongation rate of regenerating retinal ganglion cell axons. Here we investigate the effects of these factors on the numbers and types of macrophages that invade the regeneration zone. In control PBS-treated nerves, many macrophage-like cells are present 100 μm distal to the crush site at 1 week after injury; their numbers halve by 2 weeks. A single application of CNTF at the time of injury triples the numbers of macrophages at 1 week, with this increase compared to control being maintained at 2 weeks. Application of FGF-2 is equally effective at 1 week, but the macrophage numbers have fallen to control levels at 2 weeks. Immunostaining with a pan-macrophage marker, ED1, and a marker for M2-like macrophages, Arg-1, showed that the proportion of the putative M2 phenotype remained at approximately 80% with all treatments. Electron microscopy of the macrophage-like cells at 1 week shows strong phagocytic activity with all treatments, with many vacuoles containing axon fragments and membrane debris. At 2 weeks...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Biological Markers
Growth Factor
Macrophage Activation
Electron Microscopy
Nerve Degeneration
Optic Nerve

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