Aqueous outflow imaging techniques and what they tell us about intraocular pressure regulation.

Jed A LusthausKeith R Martin


Recent advances in the medical and surgical management of open-angle glaucoma have increased the number of treatment options available. Several new intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering treatments target the conventional aqueous outflow (AO) system. However, success rates are variable and outcomes in individual patients are often difficult to predict. Variable treatment responses remain unexplained and highlight deficiencies in our current understanding of AO regulation and IOP homeostasis. Imaging is often relied upon to confirm diagnoses and monitor treatment responses in other ocular and systemic pathologies. As yet no suitable AO imaging tool has been developed to fulfil this role in glaucoma. A variety of imaging techniques have been used to study the AO tracts of humans and animals in ex vivo and in vivo eyes. In this review, results from novel imaging techniques that assess aqueous drainage through the episcleral venous system are considered and we argue these provide new insights into AO regulation. We suggest that the ability to objectively measure AO responses to interventions would be a significant clinical advance, and we have demonstrated that this can be achieved with direct visualisation of aqueous drainage. We pre...Continue Reading


Jun 1, 1992·Experimental Eye Research·O Mäepea, A Bill
Jan 1, 1989·Eye·P A Meyer
Mar 1, 1973·American Journal of Ophthalmology·Murray Johnstone, W G Grant
Nov 1, 1971·Experimental Eye Research·A Bill, C I Phillips
Jul 1, 1966·Experimental Eye Research·R F Jones, D M MAURICE
Oct 1, 1958·A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology·W M GRANT
Jan 1, 1959·A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology·S J KARGW K McEWEN
Jan 1, 1963·Experimental Eye Research·D M MAURICE
Jun 1, 1963·Archives of Ophthalmology·W M GRANT
Dec 30, 2004·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Cheryl R HannDouglas H Johnson
Jul 16, 2005·Current Eye Research·J Michael SelbachElke Lütjen-Drecoll
Jan 3, 2006·Experimental Eye Research·Mark Johnson
Sep 28, 2006·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Michael P Fautsch, Douglas H Johnson
Jun 11, 2008·Archives of Ophthalmology·Sanjay AsraniJoseph Izatt
Nov 26, 2008·Survey of Ophthalmology·Efstratios MendrinosTarek Shaarawy
Dec 9, 2008·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Cheryl R Hann, Michael P Fautsch
Jan 17, 2009·Optics Letters·Dong LiJianan Y Qu
Feb 26, 2009·Experimental Eye Research·Ernst R Tamm
Nov 26, 2009·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Matthias C GrieshaberRobert Stegmann
Mar 20, 2010·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Larry KagemannJoel S Schuman
Feb 5, 2011·The Open Ophthalmology Journal·Manik GoelSanjoy K Bhattacharya
Mar 2, 2011·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Jian RenChanghuei Yang
Mar 29, 2011·Experimental Eye Research·Murray JohnstoneAnnisa Jamil
Apr 26, 2011·Experimental Eye Research·Larry KagemannJoel S Schuman
May 21, 2011·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Kate E KellerTed S Acott
May 31, 2011·Experimental Eye Research·Arthur J Sit, Jay W McLaren
Jan 21, 2012·Current Opinion in Ophthalmology·W Daniel Stamer, Ted S Acott
Apr 14, 2012·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Andrew FrancisJoel S Schuman
Apr 21, 2012·Developments in Ophthalmology·Matthias C Grieshaber
Jan 4, 2013·Journal of Glaucoma·Ronald L Fellman, Davinder S Grover
Jan 17, 2013·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Junyi ChenXinghuai Sun
Feb 2, 2013·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Vikas GulatiCarol B Toris
Dec 24, 2013·Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics : the Official Journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics·Murray Johnstone
Feb 15, 2014·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Larry KagemannJoel S Schuman
Dec 3, 2014·Experimental Eye Research·Sietse T BraakmanDarryl R Overby
Jan 18, 2016·Experimental Eye Research·Elliott D K ChaHaiyan Gong
Jan 26, 2016·PloS One·Sindhu SaraswathyAlex S Huang
Mar 15, 2016·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Michael D BentleyMichael P Fautsch
May 27, 2016·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Ralitsa T LoewenNils A Loewen
Jun 18, 2016·Journal of Ophthalmology·L ZeppaC Costagliola
Jul 14, 2016·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Simon S GaoDavid Huang
Aug 19, 2016·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Akihito UjiNagahisa Yoshimura
Sep 3, 2016·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Alex S HuangRobert N Weinreb
Nov 15, 2016·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Ruiyi RenHaiyan Gong
Nov 17, 2016·Translational Vision Science & Technology·Alex S HuangRobert N Weinreb
Dec 29, 2016·Progress in Retinal and Eye Research·Teresia CarreonSanjoy K Bhattacharya
May 4, 2017·Ophthalmology·Alex S HuangRobert N Weinreb
May 12, 2017·Scientific Reports·Min XuXiao-Ming Li
Sep 13, 2017·Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology·Alex S HuangRobert N Weinreb
Oct 4, 2017·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Ke WangC Ross Ethier
May 31, 2018·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Susannah WaxmanNils A Loewen
Jul 22, 2018·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Chen XinRuikang K Wang
Aug 11, 2018·Journal of Glaucoma·Alex S HuangRobert N Weinreb
Jan 27, 2019·Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science·Hanna M GottschalkChristian van Oterendorp
Oct 9, 2019·Ophthalmology. Glaucoma·Alex S HuangRobert N Weinreb


Nov 13, 2020·Eye·Timothy Y Y Lai

Methods Mentioned

imaging techniques
electron microscopy
imaging technique
confocal microscopy
mechanical dilation
scanning electron microscopy
light scattering
scanning electron

Related Concepts

Diagnostic Imaging
Drainage Procedure
Glaucoma, Open-Angle
Physiologic Intraocular Pressure
Imaging Techniques
Intraocular Pressure Finding

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a rare rheumatic disease that affects children. Symptoms include joint pain, but also fevers and skin rashes. Here is the latest on this disease.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia

Pontocerebellar hypoplasias are a group of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders with prenatal onset, atrophy or hypoplasia of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, microcephaly, variable neocortical atrophy and severe mental and motor impairments. Here is the latest research on pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Cell Atlas Along the Gut-Brain Axis

Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease that occurs in individuals that suffer repetitive brain trauma. Discover the latest research on traumatic encephalopathy here.