Apr 10, 2020

Dynamics of viral index infections in novel hosts

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Nardus MollentzeR. Biek

Abstract

Whether a pathogen entering a new host species results in a single infection or in onward transmission, and potentially an outbreak, depends upon the progression of infection in the index case. Although index infections are rarely observable in nature, experimental inoculations of pathogens into novel host species have a long history in biomedical research. This provides a rich and largely unexploited data source for meta-analyses to identify the host and pathogen determinants of variability in infection outcomes. Here, we analysed the progressions of 514 experimental cross-species inoculations of rabies virus, a widespread zoonotic pathogen which in nature exhibits both dead end infections and varying levels of sustained transmission in novel hosts. Inoculations originating from bats rather than carnivores, and from warmer to cooler-bodied species caused infections with shorter incubation periods that were associated with diminished virus excretion. Inoculations between distantly related hosts tended to result in shorter clinical disease periods, which will also impede transmission. All effects were modulated by infection dose and together suggest that increased virulence as host species become more dissimilar is the limiting ...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Study
DNA Methylation [PE]
Genome
Genes
DNA Methylation
Cell Differentiation Process
TBX15 protein, human
WARS2 gene
Adaptation
Adrenal Glands

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