Immune factor of bacterial origin protects ticks against host microbial commensals

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
B. M. HayesSeemay Chou

Abstract

Hard ticks interface with diverse microbes while feeding on vertebrate hosts. We previously discovered that ticks horizontally acquired an antimicrobial toxin gene from bacteria known as domesticated amidase effector 2 (dae2). Here we show that this effector from the tick disease vector Ixodes scapularis (Dae2Is) is delivered to the host bite site via saliva and that its structural and biochemical divergence from bacterial homologs results in an expanded targeting range to include host skin microbes. Upon disruption of dae2Is, we found higher loads of skin-associated staphylococci within ticks, adversely affecting their fitness. In contrast, Dae2Is has no intrinsic lytic activity against Borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-borne pathogen of Lyme disease. Our observations suggest ticks have evolved to preferentially resist opportunistic pathogens, such as host skin commensals, while tolerating their own symbionts. These results highlight a unique interkingdom interface between blood-feeding vectors, hosts, and their associated microbes where incompatible host-microbe interactions lead to disease.

Related Concepts

Size
Wright stain
Gene Conversion of Immunoglobulin Genes
Recombination, Genetic
Simulate Composite Resin
Argon
Argon
Chromosomes
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Simulation

Related Feeds

Cell Migration

Cell migration is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. Here is the latest research.

BioRxiv & MedRxiv Preprints

BioRxiv and MedRxiv are the preprint servers for biology and health sciences respectively, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Here are the latest preprint articles (which are not peer-reviewed) from BioRxiv and MedRxiv.

Related Papers

Maryland State Medical Journal
K L Crawford
Dapim refuiim. Folia medica
M LEFFKOWITZ
Ugeskrift for laeger
M Petri
Ugeskrift for laeger
S Nørby
Ugeskrift for laeger
B Rossen
© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved