Islands have traditionally been considered to be any relatively small body of land completely surrounded by water. However, their primary biological characteristic, an extended period of isolation from a source of colonists, is common also to many situations on continents. Accordingly, theories and predictions developed for true islands have been applied to a huge array of systems, from rock pools, to single tree species in forests, to oceanic islands. Here, we examine the literature on islands in the broadest sense (i.e., whether surrounded by water or any other uninhabitable matrix) as it pertains to terrestrial arthropods. We categorize islands according to the features they share. The primary distinction between different island systems is "darwinian" islands (formed de novo) and "fragment" islands. In the former, the islands have never been in contact with the source of colonists and have abundant "empty" ecological niche space. On these islands, species numbers will initially increase through immigration, the rate depending on the degree of isolation. If isolation persists, over time species formation will result in "neo-endemics." When isolation is extreme, the ecological space will gradually be filled through speciation...Continue Reading
The effect of thioacetamide on the maturation of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid in tumour cells
Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and sequential colonization of Canary Islands by darkling beetles of the genus Pimelia (Tenebrionidae)
Survey response rates: national and regional differences in a European multicentre study of vertebral osteoporosis
Pattern of ecological shifts in the diversification of Hawaiian Drosophila inferred from a molecular phylogeny
Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of Pimelia darkling beetles on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands)
Ataxin-1 nuclear localization and aggregation: role in polyglutamine-induced disease in SCA1 transgenic mice
Tests of pleistocene speciation in montane grasshoppers (genus Melanoplus) from the sky islands of western North America
Phylogeography of the jumping spider Habronattus pugillis (araneae: salticidae): recent vicariance of sky island populations?
Evaluating hypotheses on the origin and evolution of the New Zealand alpine cicadas (Maoricicada) using multiple-comparison tests of tree topology
Ecological biogeography of southern ocean islands: species-area relationships, human impacts, and conservation
Species richness and parasitism in a fragmented landscape: experiments and field studies with insects on Vicia sepium
Island ecology of arthropods : II. Niches and relative abundances of Seychelles ants (Formicidae) in different habitats
A HISTORY OF HOST ASSOCIATIONS AND EVOLUTIONARY DIVERSIFICATION FOR OPHRAELLA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE): NEW EVIDENCE FROM MITOCHONDRIAL DNA
SEQUENTIAL RADIATIONS AND PATTERNS OF SPECIATION IN THE HAWAIIAN CRICKET GENUS LAUPALA INFERRED FROM DNA SEQUENCES
Origin and diversification of the endemic Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) based on molecular evidence
The imprint of geologic history on within-island diversification of woodlouse-hunter spiders (Araneae, Dysderidae) in the Canary Islands
DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar
Cryptic differentiation in the endemic micromoth Galagete darwini (Lepidoptera, Autostichidae) on Galápagos volcanoes
Biogeography of the fauna of French Polynesia: diversification within and between a series of hot spot archipelagos
Phylogeography of a successful aerial disperser: the golden orb spider Nephila on Indian Ocean islands
Sampling genetic diversity in the sympatrically and allopatrically speciating Midas cichlid species complex over a 16 year time series
Seed dispersal and establishment of endangered plants on Oceanic Islands: the Janzen-Connell model, and the use of ecological analogues
Mountain refugia play a role in soil arthropod speciation on Madagascar: a case study of the endemic giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus
Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially affect α-, β- and γ-diversities on oceanic archipelagos
Morphological and color differences between island and mainland populations in the Mexican red rump tarantula, Brachypelma vagans
Rhyparida foaensis (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2007), comb. n. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and implications for the colonization of New Caledonia
New Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) define Mont Mauru, eastern Tahiti Nui, as a distinct area of endemism
Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island
Endemism and diversification in freshwater insects of Madagascar revealed by coalescent and phylogenetic analysis of museum and field collections
Sexual selection and population divergence I: The influence of socially flexible cuticular hydrocarbon expression in male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)
The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation
Adaptive radiation within New Zealand endemic species of the cockroach genus Celatoblatta Johns (Blattidae): a response to Plio-Pleistocene mountain building and climate change
Diversification of the forest beetle genus Tarphius on the Canary Islands, and the evolutionary origins of island endemics
Independent gene phylogenies and morphology demonstrate a malagasy origin for a wide-ranging group of swallowtail butterflies
Genetic structure, phylogeography and demography of two ground-beetle species endemic to the Tenerife laurel forest (Canary Islands)
Fine-scale comparative phylogeography of a sympatric sister species triplet of subterranean diving beetles from a single calcrete aquifer in Western Australia
Population structure of the pumpkin fruit fly Bactrocera depressa (Tephritidae) in Korea and Japan: Pliocene allopatry or recent invasion?
Morphology and nuclear markers reveal extensive mitochondrial introgressions in the Iberian Wall Lizard species complex
Radiation, diversity, and host-plant interactions among island and continental legume-feeding psyllids
Diversity despite dispersal: colonization history and phylogeography of Hawaiian crab spiders inferred from multilocus genetic data
Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in an endemic Hawaiian planthopper (Nesosydne chambersi: Delphacidae)
A geographic mosaic of passive dispersal: population structure in the endemic Hawaiian amber snail Succinea caduca (Mighels, 1845)
Biodiversity dynamics in isolated island communities: interaction between natural and human-mediated processes
Genetic differentiation and natural hybridization between the Sardinian endemic Maniola nurag and the European Maniola jurtina
Islands within islands: two montane palaeo-endemic birds impacted by recent anthropogenic fragmentation
Spintharus flavidus in the Caribbean-a 30 million year biogeographical history and radiation of a 'widespread species'
Persistent inter- and intraspecific gene exchange within a parallel radiation of caterpillar hunter beetles (Calosoma sp.) from the Galápagos
Palaeo-islands as refugia and sources of genetic diversity within volcanic archipelagos: the case of the widespread endemic Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae)
Systematics of the Madagascar Anelosimus spiders: remarkable local richness and endemism, and dual colonization from the Americas
Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects
Progressive migration and anagenesis in Drimys confertifolia of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile
Human-assisted invasions of pacific islands by litoria frogs: a case study of the bleating tree frog on Lord Howe Island
Phylogenetics of the antopocerus-modified tarsus clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: diversification across the Hawaiian Islands
Historical isolation of the Galápagos carpenter bee (Xylocopa darwini) despite strong flight capability and ecological amplitude
Reconstructing the colonisation and diversification history of the endemic freshwater crab (Seychellum alluaudi) in the granitic and volcanic Seychelles Archipelago
Evolution and diversification of the forest and hypogean ground-beetle genus Trechus in the Canary Islands
Phylogeography of a good Caribbean disperser: Argiope argentata (Araneae, Araneidae) and a new 'cryptic' species from Cuba
Revision and Microtomography of the Pheidole knowlesi Group, an Endemic Ant Radiation in Fiji (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)Myrmicinae)
Seasonality and prevalence of the protistan trichomycete Enterobryus halophilus (Ichthyosporea: Eccrinales) in the mole crab Emerita portoricensis
Colonization and diversification of aquatic insects on three Macaronesian archipelagos using 59 nuclear loci derived from a draft genome
The life and adventures of an eight-legged castaway: Colonization and diversification of Philisca ghost spiders on Robinson Crusoe Island (Araneae, Anyphaenidae)
Colonization and diversification of the spider genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae, Pholcidae) in the Macaronesian archipelagos: evidence for long-term occupancy yet rapid recent speciation
Model selection in statistical historical biogeography of Neotropical insects-The Exophthalmus genus complex (Curculionidae: Entiminae)
Closing the gap: Avian lineage splits at a young, narrow seaway imply a protracted history of mixed population response
Taxon cycle predictions supported by model-based inference in Indo-Pacific trap-jaw ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Odontomachus)
Reproductive success of the Canarian Echium simplex (Boraginaceae) mediated by vertebrates and insects
Evolutionary history of a vanishing radiation: isolation-dependent persistence and diversification in Pacific Island partulid tree snails
Mosquito fauna on the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa): an update on species distribution and a new finding
Phylogenetic analysis informed by geological history supports multiple, sequential invasions of the Mediterranean Basin by the angiosperm family Araceae
Life-history traits maintain the genomic integrity of sympatric species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) group on an isolated forest island
Holocene Population Decline and Conservation Implication for the Western Hercules Beetle, Dynastes grantii (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)
Convergent evolution of morphology and habitat use in the explosive Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar radiation
Chance and predictability in evolution: The genomic basis of convergent dietary specializations in an adaptive radiation
Across the Indian Ocean: A remarkable example of trans-oceanic dispersal in an austral mygalomorph spider
Insecticide resistance and fitness cost in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive and resident species in La Réunion Island
Reed frog diversification in the Gulf of Guinea: overseas dispersal, the progression rule, and in situ speciation
Limited gene flow may enhance adaptation to local optima in isolated populations of the Roesel's bush cricket (Metrioptera roeselii)
Australasian sky islands act as a diversity pump facilitating peripheral speciation and complex reversal from narrow endemic to widespread ecological supertramp
Biodiversity and Extinction of Hawaiian Land Snails: How Many Are Left Now and What Must We Do To Conserve Them-A Reply to
The origin and radiation of Macaronesian beetles breeding in Euphorbia: the relative importance of multiple data partitions and population sampling
Multiple colonizations, in situ speciation, and volcanism-associated stepping-stone dispersals shaped the phylogeography of the Macaronesian red fescues (Festuca L., Gramineae)
And if Engler was not completely wrong? Evidence for multiple evolutionary origins in the moss flora of Macaronesia
Historic hybridization and introgression between two iconic Australian anemonefish and contemporary patterns of population connectivity
Multiple, independent colonizations of the Hawaiian Archipelago by the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)
Updating the Phylogenetic Dating of New Caledonian Biodiversity with a Meta-analysis of the Available Evidence
A comparative analysis of terrestrial arthropod assemblages from a relict forest unveils historical extinctions and colonization differences between two oceanic islands
Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila exhibit adaptive population divergence along a narrow climatic gradient on Hawaii Island
Island hopping introduces Polynesian field crickets to novel environments, genetic bottlenecks and rapid evolution
High genetic diversity in the offshore island populations of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis
High Elevation Refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Conservation and Wild Bees of the White Mountain National Forest
Temperature and historical land connectivity jointly shape the floristic relationship between Hainan Island and the neighbouring landmasses.
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