Enzymes are nanometer-sized molecules with three-dimensional structures created by the folding and self-assembly of polymeric chain-like components through supramolecular interactions. They are capable of performing catalytic functions usually accompanied by a variety of conformational states. The conformational diversities and complexities of natural enzymes exerted in catalysis seriously restrict the detailed understanding of enzymatic mechanisms in molecular terms. A supramolecular viewpoint is undoubtedly helpful in understanding the principle of enzyme catalysis. The emergence of supramolecular artificial enzymes therefore provides an alternative way to approach the structural complexity and thus to unravel the mystery of enzyme catalysis. This critical review covers the recent development of artificial enzymes designed based on supramolecular scaffolds ranging from the synthetic macrocycles to self-assembled nanometer-sized objects. Such findings are anticipated to facilitate the design of supramolecular artificial enzymes as well as their potential uses in important fields, such as manufacturing and food industries, environmental biosensors, pharmaceutics and so on.
A Supramolecular Enzyme Mimic That Catalyzes the 15,15' Double Bond Scission of beta,beta-Carotene This research was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, Novartis International AG, and F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG. We are grateful to F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG for the generous gift of carotenoids, and we also thank Prof. Dr. Jakob Wirz, Insitut für Physikalische Chemie der Universität Basel, for the calculation of the binding constant K(a) of 1 to the receptor 3
Molecular design of artificial molecular and ion recognition systems with allosteric guest responses
Supramolecular catalysis of the enantiodifferentiating [4 + 4] photocyclodimerization of 2-anthracenecarboxylate by gamma-cyclodextrin
Highly efficient deprotection of aromatic acetals under neutral conditions using beta-cyclodextrin in water
Mild oxidation of alcohols with o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) in water/acetone mixture in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin
Towards more efficient glutathione peroxidase mimics: substrate recognition and catalytic group assembly
Highly regioselective ring opening of oxiranes with phenoxides in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin in water
Cyclodextrin-derived diorganyl tellurides as glutathione peroxidase mimics and inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase and cancer cell growth
Differential and substrate-selective reactivity of calixarene derivatives with cyclenyl-Zn(II) modifications at the upper rim
Aryl thiol substrate 3-carboxy-4-nitrobenzenethiol strongly stimulating thiol peroxidase activity of glutathione peroxidase mimic 2, 2'-ditellurobis(2-deoxy-beta-cyclodextrin)
Albumin-conjugated corrole metal complexes: extremely simple yet very efficient biomimetic oxidation systems
Artificial metalloenzymes based on biotin-avidin technology for the enantioselective reduction of ketones by transfer hydrogenation
Cyclodextrin-derived mimic of glutathione peroxidase exhibiting enzymatic specificity and high catalytic efficiency
Supramolecular catalysis of Strecker reaction in water under neutral conditions in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin
Copper-phthalocyanine conjugates of serum albumins as enantioselective catalysts in Diels-Alder reactions
Soluble single-molecule nanogels of controlled structure as a matrix for efficient artificial enzymes
Complexation, structure, and superoxide dismutase activity of the imidazolate-bridged dinuclear copper moiety with beta-cyclodextrin and its guanidinium-containing derivative
Block copolymer micelles as matrixes for incorporating diselenide compounds: a model system for a water-soluble glutathione peroxidase mimic fine-tuned by ionic strength
Artificial transfer hydrogenases based on the biotin-(strept)avidin technology: fine tuning the selectivity by saturation mutagenesis of the host protein
Catalysis of diribonucleoside monophosphate cleavage by water soluble copper(II) complexes of calixarene based nitrogen ligands
Model systems for flavoenzyme activity: recognition and redox modulation of flavin mononucleotide in water using nanoparticles
Selenium-mediated micellar catalyst: an efficient enzyme model for glutathione peroxidase-like catalysis
Supramolecular synthesis of selenazoles using selenourea in water in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin under atmospheric pressure
Allosterically regulated supramolecular catalysis of acyl transfer reactions for signal amplification and detection of small molecules
Alpha,beta-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles as a practical class of dienophiles for the DNA-based catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction in water
Making amines strong bases: thermodynamic stabilization of protonated guests in a highly-charged supramolecular host1
Enhanced radical scavenging activity by antioxidant-functionalized gold nanoparticles: a novel inspiration for development of new artificial antioxidants
Remarkable CO-catalyst effect of gold nanoclusters on olefin oxidation catalyzed by a manganese-porphyrin complex
Allosteric regulation of phosphate diester transesterification based upon a dinuclear zinc catalyst assembled via the weak-link approach
Detection of reactive tetrahedral intermediates in a deep cavitand with an introverted functionality
Highly selective photomediated 1,4-radical addition to o-quinones controlled by a self-assembled cage
Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles as peroxidase mimetics and their applications in H2O2 and glucose detection
Cobalt-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation with diazosulfones: rigidification and polarization of ligand chiral environment via hydrogen bonding and cyclization
Asymmetric [2 + 2] olefin cross photoaddition in a self-assembled host with remote chiral auxiliaries
PNA based artificial nucleases displaying catalysis with turnover in the cleavage of a leukemia related RNA model
Stereoselective hydrogenation of olefins using rhodium-substituted carbonic anhydrase--a new reductase
Singly hydrogen bonded supramolecular ligands for highly selective rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation reactions
Self-assembled gold nanocrystal micelles act as an excellent artificial nanozyme with ribonuclease activity
A kinetic and structural investigation of DNA-based asymmetric catalysis using first-generation ligands
Construction of smart glutathione peroxidase mimic based on hydrophilic block copolymer with temperature responsive activity
Transition-state stabilization by a secondary substrate-ligand interaction: a new design principle for highly efficient transition-metal catalysis
Giant nanotubes loaded with artificial peroxidase centers: self-assembly of supramolecular amphiphiles as a tool to functionalize nanotubes
Small peptide nanofibers as the matrices of molecular hydrogels for mimicking enzymes and enhancing the activity of enzymes
Facile and scalable synthesis of a novel rigid artificial superoxide dismutase based on modified hollow mesoporous silica microspheres
Effect of hydrophobic interaction cooperating with double Lewis acid activation in a zinc(II) phosphodiesterase mimic
Artificial metalloenzymes based on the biotin-avidin technology: enantioselective catalysis and beyond
Enzyme-inspired controlled release of cucurbituril nanovalves by using magnetic mesoporous silica
A novel artificial superoxide dismutase: non-covalent conjugation of albumin with a Mn(III) salophen type complex
Enzyme-controlled self-assembly and transformation of nanostructures in a tetramethylbenzidine/horseradish peroxidase/H2O2 system
Confined nanospaces in metallocages: guest molecules, weakly encapsulated anions, and catalyst sequestration
Reversible ON/OFF nanoswitch for organocatalysis: mimicking the locking and unlocking operation of CaMKII
Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts reactions in water catalyzed by a human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA metalloenzyme
A facile one-pot method to synthesize a polypyrrole/hemin nanocomposite and its application in biosensor, dye removal, and photothermal therapy
Self-assembled nanospheres with multiple endohedral binding sites pre-organize catalysts and substrates for highly efficient reactions
Cycloaramide-Tropylium Charge Transfer Complex as a Colorimetric Chemosensor for Differentiation of Intimate and Loose Ion Pairs
Enhancing the Activity of Peptide-Based Artificial Hydrolase with Catalytic Ser/His/Asp Triad and Molecular Imprinting
Immobilization of Monolayers Incorporating Cu Funnel Complexes onto Gold Electrodes. Application to the Selective Electrochemical Recognition of Primary Alkylamines in Water
Reversible pH-controlled switching of an artificial antioxidant selenoenzyme based on pseudorotaxane formation and dissociation
Tailoring of the desired selectivity and the turn-on detection range in a self-assembly-based fluorescence sensory system
Manganese-Based Nanozymes: Multienzyme Redox Activity and Effect on the Nitric Oxide Produced by Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase
Encapsulation of a catalytic imidazolium salt into avidin: towards the development of a biohybrid catalyst active in ionic liquids
Supramolecular phosphatases formed by the self-assembly of the bis(Zn²⁺-cyclen) complex, copper(II), and barbital derivatives in water
Bifunctionalized mesoporous silica-supported gold nanoparticles: intrinsic oxidase and peroxidase catalytic activities for antibacterial applications
Fluorescence Spectroscopic Insight into the Supramolecular Interactions in DNA-Based Enantioselective Sulfoxidation
An ultrathin iron-porphyrin based nanocapsule with high peroxidase-like activity for highly sensitive glucose detection
Identification and Directed Development of Non-Organic Catalysts with Apparent Pan-Enzymatic Mimicry into Nanozymes for Efficient Prodrug Conversion
Diselenium-containing ultrathin polymer nanocapsules for highly efficient targeted drug delivery and combined anticancer effect
Novel chiral (salen)Mn(III) complexes containing a calixarene unit in 1,3-alternate conformation as catalysts for enantioselective epoxidation reactions of (Z)-aryl alkenes
Confinement of Reactive Oxygen Species in an Artificial-Enzyme-Based Hollow Structure To Eliminate Adverse Effects of Photocatalysis on UV Filters
Unveiling the formation 1 : 2 supramolecular complexes between cucurbituril and a cationic calixarene derivative
Construction of pH sensitive smart glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimics based on pH responsive pseudorotaxanes
A dual enzyme microgel with high antioxidant ability based on engineered seleno-ferritin and artificial superoxide dismutase
A mesoporous encapsulated nanozyme for decontaminating two kinds of wastewater and avoiding secondary pollution
Construction of protein nanowires through cucurbituril-based highly specific host-guest interactions: an approach to the assembly of functional proteins
Reaction mediated artificial cell termination: control of vesicle viability using Rh(I)-catalyzed hydrogenation
Does Confinement Always Lead to Thermodynamically and/or Kinetically Favorable Reactions? A Case Study using Diels-Alder Reactions within ExBox+4 and CB[7
Self-templated fabrication of FeMnO3 nanoparticle-filled polypyrrole nanotubes for peroxidase mimicking with a synergistic effect and their sensitive colorimetric detection of glutathione
Self-assembled M12 L24 nanospheres as a reaction vessel to facilitate a dinuclear Cu(i) catalyzed cyclization reaction
Self-Assembled M₂L₄ Nanocapsules: Synthesis, Structure and Host-Guest Recognition Toward Square Planar Metal Complexes
Confinement induced catalytic activity in a Diels-Alder reaction: comparison among various CB[n], n = 6-8, cavitands
Gold-catalyzed Cycloisomerization Reactions within Guanidinium M12 L24 Nanospheres: the Effect of Local Concentrations
Insulated conjugated bimetallopolymer with sigmoidal response by dual self-controlling system as a biomimetic material.
Strongly fluorescent organogels and self-assembled nanostructures from pyrene coupled coumarin derivatives: application in cell imaging
Supramolecular catalysis. Part 1: non-covalent interactions as a tool for building and modifying homogeneous catalysts
An Easy Access to Organic Salt-Based Stimuli-Responsive and Multifunctional Supramolecular Hydrogels
Confinement induced thermodynamic and kinetic facilitation of some Diels-Alder reactions inside a CB cavitand
β-Cyclodextrin coated porous Pd@Au nanostructures with enhanced peroxidase-like activity for colorimetric and paper-based determination of glucose
Nature-Inspired Construction of MOF@COF Nanozyme with Active Sites in Tailored Microenvironment and Pseudopodia-Like Surface for Enhanced Bacterial Inhibition.
DNA engineered copper oxide-based nanocomposites with multiple enzyme-like activities for specific detection of mercury species in environmental and biological samples
The role of hydrophobicity in supramolecular polymer/surfactant catalysts: An understandable model for enzymatic catalysis.
Enzyme mimics in-focus: Redefining the catalytic attributes of artificial enzymes for renewable energy production.
pH-Controlled Chirality Inversion in Enantiodifferentiating Photocyclodimerization of 2-Antharacenecarboxylic Acid Mediated by γ-Cyclodextrin Derivatives
The first protection-free synthesis of magnetic bifunctional l-proline as a highly active and versatile artificial enzyme: Synthesis of imidazole derivatives
A novel series of giant cobalt-calixarene macrocycles: ring-expansion and modulation of pore apertures through recrystallization.
Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.
Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A
Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.
Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.
Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.
Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells
Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.
This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.
Pharmacology of Proteinopathies
This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.
Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools
Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.