Aryl phosphate derivatives of bromo-methoxy-azidothymidine are dual-function spermicides with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus

Biology of Reproduction
Osmond J D'CruzFatih M Uckun


Detergent-based vaginal microbicides, in addition to their high contraceptive failure rates, cause mucosal erosion and local inflammation that might increase the risk of heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. In a systematic effort to identify a microbicide contraceptive potentially capable of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV as well as providing fertility control, a series of novel aryl phosphate derivatives of 5-bromo-6-methoxy-3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT; zidovudine) were synthesized and examined for dual anti-HIV and sperm-immobilizing activity (SIA). Whereas AZT displayed potent anti-HIV activity (IC50 = 0.006 microM) but lacked SIA (EC50 > 300 microM), two 5-bromo-6-methoxy-aryl phosphate derivatives of AZT, compounds WHI-05 and WHI-07, exhibited potent anti-HIV activity as well as SIA. The IC50 (HIV) and EC50 (SIA) values for WHI-07 were 439-fold and 13.5-fold lower, respectively, than those for the detergent-based virucidal spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9). Sperm motion kinematics using computer-assisted sperm motion analysis combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, high-resolution low-voltage scanning, and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that both WHI-05 and WHI-0...Continue Reading


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Related Concepts

Electron Microscopy
Sperm Motility
Sperm-Zona Pellucida Penetration
Vaginal Spermicides
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