Assessment of fetal compromise by Doppler ultrasound investigation of the fetal circulation. Arterial, intracardiac, and venous blood flow velocity studies

Circulation
K HecherK Nicolaides

Abstract

Doppler studies of the fetal circulation in intrauterine growth retardation and hypoxia have demonstrated a compensatory redistribution of arterial blood flow with increased flow to the cerebrum and myocardium and decreased flow to the periphery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of changes in fetal venous blood flow waveforms in high-risk pregnancies and to investigate the time relation between alterations in venous and arterial Doppler waveform indices in compromised fetuses. The cross-sectional study consisted of 108 high-risk singleton pregnancies between 23 and 42 weeks' gestation without fetal chromosomal abnormalities or major malformations. Blood flow velocity waveforms were recorded from the umbilical arteries, descending thoracic aorta, middle cerebral artery, tricuspid and mitral ventricular inflow, ductus venosus, inferior vena cava, and the right hepatic vein. The mean velocity and pulsatility index were calculated for arterial vessels, the E/A ratio for atrioventricular blood flow, and peak forward velocities during ventricular systole and early diastole, the lowest forward velocity or peak reverse velocity during arterial contraction, and time-averaged maximum velocity for venous vessels. Two...Continue Reading

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Arteries
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