Oct 10, 2014

Association Mapping across Numerous Traits Reveals Patterns of Functional Variation in Maize

bioRxiv
Jason G WallaceEdward Buckler

Abstract

Phenotypic variation in natural populations results from a combination of genetic effects, environmental effects, and gene-by-environment interactions. Despite the vast amount of genomic data becoming available, many pressing questions remain about the nature of genetic mutations that underlie functional variation. We present the results of combining genome-wide association analysis of 41 different phenotypes in ∼5,000 inbred maize lines to analyze patterns of high-resolution genetic association among of 28.9 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ∼800,000 copy-number variants (CNVs). We show that genie and intergenic regions have opposite patterns of enrichment, minor allele frequencies, and effect sizes, implying tradeoffs among the probability that a given polymorphism will have an effect, the detectable size of that effect, and its frequency in the population. We also find that genes tagged by GWAS are enriched for regulatory functions and are ∼50% more likely to have a paralog than expected by chance, indicating that gene regulation and neofunctionalization are strong drivers of phenotypic variation. These results will likely apply to many other organisms, especially ones with large and complex genomes like mai...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Gene Polymorphism
Genome-Wide Association Study
Patterns
Genome
Genes
Superior Mental Spine
Inbred Strain
Environment
Zea mays
DNA Copy Number Variations

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