Atrioventricular septal defects: possible etiologic differences between complete and partial defects
Recent advances in clinical, pathological, and genetic aspects of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) have set the stage for epidemiologic investigations into possible risk factors. Previous analyses of the total case group of AVSD included complete and partial subtypes without analysis of the subsets. To address the question of possible morphogenetic heterogeneity of AVSD, the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study data on live-born cases and controls (1981-1989) was reanalyzed for potential environmental and genetic risk-factor associations in complete AVSD (n = 213), with separate comparisons to the atrial (n = 75) and the ventricular (n = 32) forms of partial AVSD. Complete and ventricular forms of AVSD had a similar proportion of isolated cases (12.2% and 15.6%, respectively, without associated extracardiac anomalies) and high rates of Down syndrome, whereas the atrial form of partial AVSD included 55% isolated cases. Trisomy 18 occurred in 22% of infants with the ventricular form, compared with <2% in the other AVSD groups. Analysis of potential risk factors revealed further distinctions. Complete AVSD as an isolated cardiac defect was strongly associated with maternal diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 20.6; 95% confidence interv...Continue Reading
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The non-genetic paternal factors for congenital heart defects: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Original Findings and Updated Meta-Analysis for the Association Between Maternal Diabetes and Risk for Congenital Heart Disease Phenotypes
Analysis of Copy Number Variants on Chromosome 21 in Down Syndrome-Associated Congenital Heart Defects
Maternal diabetes: effects on embryonic vascular development--a vascular endothelial growth factor-A-mediated process
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.
Cardiac Conduction System
The cardiac conduction system is a specialized tract of myocardial cells responsible for maintaining normal cardiac rhythm. Discover the latest research on the cardiac conduction system here.