Aug 1, 1989

Atropine and/or diazepam therapy protects against soman-induced neural and cardiac pathology

Fundamental and Applied Toxicology : Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
J H McDonoughH E Modrow


Toxic doses of the organophosphonate anticholinesterase agent soman can produce neural and cardiac lesions in animals that survive the acute poisoning. The ability of two standard antidote drugs, atropine and diazepam, along with the oxime pralidoxime (2-PAM) Cl, were evaluated for their ability to block these pathological effects. Rats were challenged with a fixed dose (85 micrograms/kg, sc) of soman and treated im 5 min later with 25 mg/kg 2-PAM Cl and one of the following combinations of atropine (0.0, 1.0, 3.2, 10.0, or 32.0 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.0, 0.1, 0.32, 1.0, or 3.2 mg/kg) in a balanced design. The severity of acute anticholinesterase intoxication signs was rated 1 hr after exposure; Body weights and behavioral reactivity ratings were obtained daily for 16 days after exposure; brains and hearts of all surviving subjects were then evaluated for pathological changes. Soman challenge resulted in 33% lethality in animals that received only 2-PAM therapy; both atropine and diazepam reduced lethality in a dose-dependent fashion. Across all treatment conditions greater than 50% of the deaths occurred later than 24 hr after intoxication and treatment. Acute intoxication signs were differentially moderated by the two drugs: a...Continue Reading

  • References
  • Citations73


  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.

Mentioned in this Paper

August Rats
Secretion of Saliva
Weighing Patient
Cholinesterase Inhibitors, Reversible

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.