Two previous epidemiological studies of autistic twins suggested that autism was predominantly genetically determined, although the findings with regard to a broader phenotype of cognitive, and possibly social, abnormalities were contradictory. Obstetric and perinatal hazards were also invoked as environmentally determined aetiological factors. The first British twin sample has been re-examined and a second total population sample of autistic twins recruited. In the combined sample 60% of monozygotic (MZ) pairs were concordant for autism versus no dizygotic (DZ) pairs; 92% of MZ pairs were concordant for a broader spectrum of related cognitive or social abnormalities versus 10% of DZ pairs. The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Obstetric hazards usually appear to be consequences of genetically influenced abnormal development, rather than independent aetiological factors. Few new cases had possible medical aetiologies, refuting claims that recognized disorders are common aetiological influences.
Evidence that autistic traits show the same etiology in the general population and at the quantitative extremes (5%, 2.5%, and 1%)
Early brain overgrowth in autism associated with an increase in cortical surface area before age 2 years
A multivariate twin study of autistic traits in 12-year-olds: testing the fractionable autism triad hypothesis
Early social, imitation, play, and language abilities of young non-autistic siblings of children with autism
Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): a study in Dutch population and patient groups
Regulation of cerebral cortical size and neuron number by fibroblast growth factors: implications for autism
Psychological correlates of handedness and corpus callosum asymmetry in autism: the left hemisphere dysfunction theory revisited
Association between the HOXA1 A218G polymorphism and increased head circumference in patients with autism
Genetically driven variation in serotonin uptake: is there a link to affective spectrum, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders?
The transmission disequilibrium test suggests that HLA-DR4 and DR13 are linked to autism spectrum disorder
Prenatal exposure of rats to valproic acid reproduces the cerebellar anomalies associated with autism
The mismatch negativity and the P3a components of the auditory event-related potentials in autistic low-functioning subjects
Copy number variation and association analysis of SHANK3 as a candidate gene for autism in the IMGSAC collection
Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders
Major contribution of dominant inheritance to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in population-based families
A comparative study of infantile autism and specific development receptive language disorder. I. The children
Early childhood psychosis and bleeding during pregnancy. A prospective study of gravid women and their offspring
The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 1991. Autism and autistic-like conditions: subclasses among disorders of empathy
Do microscopic abnormalities at resection margins correlate with increased anastomotic recurrence in Crohn's disease? Retrospective analysis of 100 cases
Reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal periods is not equivalent to severe peri- or neonatal risk: a rejoinder to Goodman's technical note
Autism diagnostic observation schedule: a standardized observation of communicative and social behavior
Electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of sleep in the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis Hallowell
Outcome and prognostic factors in infantile autism and similar conditions: a population-based study of 46 cases followed through puberty
Minor physical anomalies in childhood autism. Part I. Their relationship to pre- and perinatal complications
Rattus norvegicus as a tool in mammalian behavior genetics: introduction to a special of Behavior Genetics
Comparison of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised for a referred population
Autism and mental retardation: neuropathologic studies performed in four retarded persons with autistic behavior
Autism spectrum disorder is associated with challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, and often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues. Here is the latest research.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.