Autoimmune encephalitis: the first observational study from Iran.

Neurological Sciences : Official Journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
Masoud EtemadifarMehri Salari

Abstract

Even within the most populous countries in the Middle East, such as Iran, autoimmune encephalitis cases have been rarely reported. We aimed to describe the demographic, clinical, and paraclinical characteristics of Iranian patients with autoimmune encephalitis positive for anti-neuronal autoantibodies. This cross-sectional study included all patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis and referred to our hospital, in Isfahan, Iran, from March 2016 to May 2020. Patients' demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and electroencephalographic features were obtained from their medical records. We identified a total of 39 (21 females, 53.8%) patients with autoimmune encephalitis (mean age = 34.9 ± 12.8 years). The most commonly detected antibody was anti-NMDAR (n = 26, 66.7%), followed by anti-GABABR (n = 8, 20.5%), anti-Zic4 (n = 4, 10.3%), and anti-GAD65 (n = 1, 2.6%) antibodies, in descending order of frequency. Two anti-NMDAR-positive patients had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and four had a prior history of herpes simplex encephalitis. Clinical presentations in patients positive for anti-Zic4 antibodies included cognitive decline (n = 4, 100%), seizures (n = 3, 75%), parkinsonism (n = 1, 25%), and s...Continue Reading

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