Apr 10, 2020

Furin controls β cell function via mTORC1 signaling

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
B. BrouwersJohn W.M. Creemers

Abstract

Furin is a proprotein convertase (PC) responsible for proteolytic activation of a wide array of precursor proteins within the secretory pathway. It maps to the PRC1 locus, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility locus, yet its specific role in pancreatic {beta} cells is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of furin in glucose homeostasis. We show that furin is highly expressed in human islets, while PCs that potentially could provide redundancy are expressed at considerably lower levels. {beta} cell-specific furin knockout ({beta}furKO) mice are glucose intolerant, due to smaller islets with lower insulin content and abnormal dense core secretory granule morphology. RNA expression analysis and differential proteomics on {beta}furKO islets revealed activation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4), which was mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin C1 (mTORC1). {beta}furKO cells show impaired cleavage of the essential V-ATPase subunit Ac45, and by blocking this pump in {beta} cells the mTORC1 pathway is activated. Furthermore, {beta}furKO cells show lack of insulin receptor cleavage and impaired response to insulin. Taken together, these results suggest a model of mTORC1-ATF4 hyperactivation in {beta} ...Continue Reading

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