Apr 18, 2020

A flexible repertoire of transcription factor binding sites and diversity threshold determines enhancer activity in embryonic stem cells

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
G. SinghJennifer A Mitchell


Transcriptional enhancers are critical for development, phenotype evolution and often mutated in disease contexts; however, even in well-studied cell types, the sequence code conferring enhancer activity remains unknown. We found genomic regions with conserved binding of multiple transcription factors (TFs) in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are enriched in a diverse repertoire of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) including known and novel ESC regulators. Remarkably, using a diverse set of TFBS from this repertoire was sufficient to construct short synthetic enhancers with activity comparable to native enhancers. Site directed mutagenesis of conserved TFBS in endogenous enhancers or TFBS deletion from synthetic sequences revealed a requirement for >10 different TFBS for robust activity. Specific TFBS, including the OCT4:SOX2 co-motif, are dispensable, despite co-binding the OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG master regulators of pluripotency. These findings reveal a TFBS diversity threshold overrides the need for optimized regulatory grammar and individual TFBS that bind specific master regulators.

  • References
  • Citations


  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.
  • References
  • Citations


  • This paper may not have been cited yet.

Mentioned in this Paper

Biological Markers
Trees (plant)
Sorting - Cell Movement

Related Feeds

BioRxiv & MedRxiv Preprints

BioRxiv and MedRxiv are the preprint servers for biology and health sciences respectively, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Here are the latest preprint articles (which are not peer-reviewed) from BioRxiv and MedRxiv.