Autophagy as an innate defense against mycobacteria

Pathogens and Disease
Eun-Kyeong Jo

Abstract

Over the past several years, much has been revealed about the roles of autophagy and the mechanisms by which the autophagic pathway activates the host innate effector response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. In response to invading mycobacteria, the host innate immune system not only recognizes pathogen motifs through innate receptors, it also produces appropriate effector proteins, including cytokines. These innate signals activate or regulate autophagic pathways during infection. It is now clear that vitamin D and functional vitamin D receptor signaling are critical in the activation of autophagic defenses against Mtb in human cells. Immunity-related GTPase family M proteins, including the cationic antimicrobial protein cathelicidin and autophagic receptor p62, participate in autophagic pathways that enhance antimicrobial activity against mycobacteria. Moreover, reactive oxygen species mediate antibacterial autophagy and successful antimicrobial responses during antibiotic chemotherapy. Recent work has also shown that pathogenic Mtb can be targeted by selective autophagy through an ESX-1 type VII secretion system. Here, we review the triggers, host factors, and intracellular pathways that regulate host aut...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Programmed Cell Death, Type II
Resistance, Natural
Genus Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium Infections
Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv
Tuberculosis
Vitamin D
Cytokine
Antibiotics
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