Animals have to perform adequate behavioral actions dependent on internal states and environmental situations, and adjust their behavior according to positive or negative consequences. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for the investigation of neuronal mechanisms underlying adaptive behavior. The authors are using a behavioral paradigm in which fruit flies attached to a manipulator can walk on a Styrofoam ball whose movements are recorded such that intended left or right turns of the flies can be registered and used to operantly control heat stimuli or optogenetic activation of distinct subsets of neurons. As proof of principle, the authors find that flies in this situation avoid heat stimuli but prefer optogenetic self-stimulation of sugar receptors. Using this setup it now should be possible to study the neuronal network underlying positive and negative value assessment of adult Drosophila in an operant setting.
Isolation of a putative phospholipase C gene of Drosophila, norpA, and its role in phototransduction
The operant and the classical in conditioned orientation of Drosophila melanogaster at the flight simulator
Aversive hypothalamic stimulation releases acetylcholine in the nucleus accumbens, and stimulation-escape decreases it
Trehalose sensitivity in Drosophila correlates with mutations in and expression of the gustatory receptor gene Gr5a
Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain
The S6KII (rsk) gene of Drosophila melanogaster differentially affects an operant and a classical learning task
Light-induced activation of distinct modulatory neurons triggers appetitive or aversive learning in Drosophila larvae
Roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in mediating reward and punishment signals in insect visual learning
A toolbox for light control of Drosophila behaviors through Channelrhodopsin 2-mediated photoactivation of targeted neurons
Distinctive neuronal networks and biochemical pathways for appetitive and aversive memory in Drosophila larvae
Roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in an insect
An identified neuron mediates the unconditioned stimulus in associative olfactory learning in honeybees
Reward foraging task and model-based analysis reveal how fruit flies learn value of available options
Basal Forebrain & Food Avoidance
Neurons in the basal forebrain play specific roles in regulating feeding. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to the basal forebrain and food avoidance.