Azadirachta indica A. Juss Ameliorates Mouse Hepatitis Virus-Induced Neuroinflammatory Demyelination by Modulating Cell-to-Cell Fusion in an Experimental Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Lucky SarkarJayasri Das Sarma


Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-induced murine neuroinflammation serves as a model to study acute meningoencephalomyelitis, hepatitis, and chronic neuroinflammatory demyelination; which mimics certain pathologies of the human neurologic disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). MHV-induced acute neuroinflammation occurs due to direct glial cell dystrophy instigated by central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia and astrocytes, in contrast to peripheral CD4+T cell-mediated myelin damage prevalent in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS. Viral envelope Spike glycoprotein-mediated cell-to-cell fusion is an essential mechanistic step for MHV-induced CNS pathogenicity. Although Azadirachta indica (Neem), a traditional phytomedicine, is known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and spermicidal activities, not much is known about anti-neuroinflammatory properties of its bark (NBE) in MHV-induced acute neuroinflammation and chronic demyelination. Recombinant demyelinating MHV strain (RSA59) was preincubated with NBE to arrest the infection-initiation event, and its effect on viral replication, viral transcription, cytokine expression, and successive pathogenicity were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Virus-free...Continue Reading


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