Bacteremia and infective endocarditis in patients on hemodialysis

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Suraj MarajMorris N Kotler


The number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has risen dramatically over the last decade. There are 300,000 patients in the United States with ESRD who are receiving hemodialysis (HD), and the incidence is increasing at a rate of 6% to 8% per year. Bacteremia, a prerequisite for infective endocarditis (IE), occurs at a rate of 0.7 to 1.4 episodes per 100 patient-care months. Few other medical conditions, except for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, immunosuppression, and intravenous drug abuse, are associated with higher rates of bacteremia. IE occurs in approximately 2% to 6% of patients receiving HD. The aim of this article is to review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, current therapeutic options, and determinants of prognosis of IE in patients receiving HD.


Aug 1, 1992·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·I I Raad, G P Bodey
Jul 1, 1986·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·J L ZamoraG P Noon
May 1, 1985·Southern Medical Journal·O E Winsett, F J Wolma
Dec 1, 1973·Kidney International·A LeonardF L Shapiro
Jan 14, 1983·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·R MundaD Kittur
Apr 1, 1995·European Heart Journal·B Cormier, A Vahanian
Apr 1, 1995·European Heart Journal·J M Besnier, P Choutet
Apr 1, 1995·American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation·D Shaffer
Jan 1, 1993·Nephron·M Haag-Weber, W H Hörl
Jan 1, 1995·American Journal of Nephrology·M MohamedW Mueller
Feb 23, 1999·Kidney International·N R PoweW Briggs
Sep 24, 1999·The American Journal of Medicine·P A HeidenreichD K Owens
Oct 21, 2000·Mayo Clinic Proceedings·J T McCarthy, J M Steckelberg
Jun 26, 2001·Kidney International·G M Nassar, J C Ayus


Jan 30, 2007·Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery·Shafic S Al-NammariRamakrishnan Venkatesh
Apr 12, 2012·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Christine Selton-SutyAEPEI Study Group
Oct 24, 2007·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Pattarachai KiratisinAmornrut Leelaporn
Jun 2, 2009·Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology·N S Al-WailiR Petrillo
Feb 14, 2016·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·Danielle K FarringtonJames P Steinberg
Dec 4, 2014·International Journal of Cardiology·Ming-Ting ChouChih-Chiang Chien
Sep 7, 2011·Heart & Lung : the Journal of Critical Care·Saurabh ThakarJacob Shani
Jul 4, 2006·Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease·Gino Tapia, Jerry Yee
Dec 9, 2014·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·Pascal M DohmenFriedrich W Mohr
Dec 25, 2010·Chinese Medical Sciences Journal = Chung-kuo I Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih·Jian-Ling TaoXue-Wang Li
Dec 23, 2008·Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira De Pesquisas Médicas E Biológicas·R HirataA L Mattos-Guaraldi
May 23, 2012·International Journal of Nursing Knowledge·Chizuru KamiyaIkuko Miyawaki
Dec 13, 2018·Open Forum Infectious Diseases·John A Woller IiiJesse T Jacob
Mar 6, 2021·The American Journal of Cardiology·Muhammad Zia KhanMuhammad U Khan

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety disorder that involves excessive distress and anxiety with separation. This may include separation from places or people to which they have a strong emotional connection with. It often affects children more than adults. Here is the latest research on separation anxiety.

KIF1A Associated Neurological Disorder

KIF1A associated neurological disorder (KAND) is a rare neurodegenerative condition caused by mutations in the KIF1A gene. KAND may present with a wide range and severity of symptoms including stiff or weak leg muscles, low muscle tone, a lack of muscle coordination and balance, and intellectual disability. Find the latest research on KAND here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.