Bacterial Analogs of Plant Tetrahydropyridine Alkaloids Mediate Microbial Interactions in a Rhizosphere Model System

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Gabriel L LozanoJo Handelsman


Plants expend significant resources to select and maintain rhizosphere communities that benefit their growth and protect them from pathogens. A better understanding of assembly and function of rhizosphere microbial communities will provide new avenues for improving crop production. Secretion of antibiotics is one means by which bacteria interact with neighboring microbes and sometimes change community composition. In our analysis of a taxonomically diverse consortium from the soybean rhizosphere, we found that Pseudomonas koreensis selectively inhibits growth of Flavobacterium johnsoniae and other members of the Bacteroidetes grown in soybean root exudate. A genetic screen in P. koreensis identified a previously uncharacterized biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the inhibitory activity. Metabolites were isolated based on biological activity and were characterized using tandem mass spectrometry, multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, and Mosher ester analysis, leading to the discovery of a new family of bacterial tetrahydropyridine alkaloids, koreenceine A to D (metabolites 1 to 4). Three of these metabolites are analogs of the plant alkaloid γ-coniceine. Comparative analysis of the koreenceine cluster with the γ-co...Continue Reading


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Methods Mentioned

nuclear magnetic resonance

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