Jun 27, 2019

Barth syndrome: mechanisms and management

The Application of Clinical Genetics
Josef Finsterer

Abstract

Objectives: Barth syndrome is an ultra-rare, infantile-onset, X-linked recessive mitochondrial disorder, primarily affecting males, due to variants in TAZ encoding for the cardiolipin transacylase tafazzin. This review aimed to summarize and discuss recent and earlier findings concerning the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of Barth syndrome. Method: A literature review was undertaken through a MEDLINE search. Results: The phenotype of Barth syndrome is highly variable but most frequently patients present with hypertrophic/dilated/non-compaction cardiomyopathy, fibroelastosis, arrhythmias, neutropenia, mitochondrial myopathy, growth retardation, dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, and other, rarer features. Lactic acid and creatine kinase, and blood and urine organic acids, particularly 3-methylglutaconic acid and monolysocardiolipin, are often elevated. Cardiolipin is decreased. Biochemical investigations may show decreased activity of various respiratory chain complexes. The diagnosis is confirmed by documentation of a causative TAZ variant. Treatment is symptomatic and directed toward treating heart failure, arrhythmias, neutropenia, and mitochondrial myopathy. Conclusions: Alth...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Urine
Research
Pathogenesis
Neutropenia
Body Dysmorphic Disorders
Mitochondrial Inheritance
Complex (molecular entity)
Blood
Cardiolipins
Organic acid

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