Bat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Like Coronavirus WIV1 Encodes an Extra Accessory Protein, ORFX, Involved in Modulation of the Host Immune Response

Journal of Virology
Lei-Ping ZengZhengli Shi

Abstract

Bats harbor severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) from which the causative agent of the 2002-2003 SARS pandemic is thought to have originated. However, despite the fact that a large number of genetically diverse SL-CoV sequences have been detected in bats, only two strains (named WIV1 and WIV16) have been successfully cultured in vitro These two strains differ from SARS-CoV only in containing an extra open reading frame (ORF) (named ORFX), between ORF6 and ORF7, which has no homology to any known protein sequences. In this study, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone of SL-CoV WIV1 (rWIV1), an ORFX deletion mutant (rWIV1-ΔX), and a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing mutant (rWIV1-GFP-ΔX). Northern blotting and fluorescence microscopy indicate that ORFX was expressed during WIV1 infection. A virus infection assay showed that rWIV1-ΔX replicated as efficiently as rWIV1 in Vero E6, Calu-3, and HeLa-hACE2 cells. Further study showed that ORFX could inhibit interferon production and activate NF-κB. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the unique ORFX in the WIV1 strain is a functional gene involving modulation of the host immune response but is not essential for in vitro viral rep...Continue Reading

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Citations

Dec 6, 2019·Journal of Virology·Vineet D MenacheryRalph S Baric
Feb 14, 2020·Singapore Medical Journal·Lionel Hon Wai Lum, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
Nov 15, 2017·Science China. Life Sciences·Lei-Ping ZengZheng-Li Shi
Jun 18, 2020·Drug Metabolism Reviews·Abu HazafaSaira Bano
Aug 11, 2020·Médecine sciences : M/S·Erwan SallardÉtienne Decroly
Jan 30, 2020·Viruses·Lisa E Gralinski, Vineet D Menachery
Nov 18, 2020·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·Rossana Segreto, Yuri Deigin
Feb 10, 2021·Environmental Chemistry Letters·Erwan SallardJacques van Helden
Feb 23, 2021·Virologica Sinica·Jing ChenZheng-Li Shi
Apr 1, 2021·Environmental Chemistry Letters·Rossana SegretoDaoyu Zhang
May 1, 2021·Journal of Clinical Medicine·Krešimir PavelićNandu Goswami

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