PMID: 108756Mar 1, 1979

Behavioral intervention with muscle-contraction headache: a review

Psychosomatic Medicine
E T Beaty, S N Haynes


Studies involving behavioral intervention with muscle-contraction headache are reviewed. Intervention approaches have most frequently involved frontal electromyographic feedback and relaxation instructions. Although behavioral intervention packages have been more effective than control procedures in reducing headache activity, identification of active components of these packages is difficult. Specifically,, the contribution of placebo, expectancy and demand factors, reactive effects of self-monitoring, and home practice have not been adequately assessed. The importance of assessing individual differences in etiology and in response to intervention is stressed. The results of some studies are congruent with the hypothesized muscle tension etiology of muscle-contraction headaches but the results from others suggest that factors other than muscle-tension may be involved. Supportive laboratory research on the intervention procedures and cost-efficiency of electromyographic feedback and relaxation instructions are discussed.


Jan 1, 1981·Journal of Psychosomatic Research·L R GannonJ Hamilton
Jan 1, 1983·Journal of Psychosomatic Research·D S Holmes, T G Burish
Apr 1, 1983·Psychosomatics·M J Martin
Dec 1, 1994·Biofeedback and Self-regulation·P M LehrerR L Woolfolk
Oct 1, 1990·Journal of Behavioral Medicine·S N HaynesJ Goodwin
Sep 1, 1984·The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry·N D Spence
Jan 1, 1987·Journal of Holistic Nursing : Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association·S L Scandrett
Dec 1, 1985·Cephalalgia : an International Journal of Headache·H ForssellP Kangasniemi
Aug 1, 1987·Journal of Behavioral Medicine·L R GannonR Chavez
Jan 1, 1992·International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health·Mark Scott SmithAndrew C N Chen

Related Concepts

Behavior Therapy
Cost Effectiveness
Surface Electromyography
Vertex Headache
Psychophysiologic Disorders
Relaxation Techniques

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