Benzene and human health: A historical review and appraisal of associations with various diseases

Critical Reviews in Toxicology
David GalbraithDennis Paustenbach


Over the last century, benzene has been a well-studied chemical, with some acute and chronic exposures being directly associated with observed hematologic effects in humans and animals. Chronic heavy exposures to benzene have also been associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in humans. Other disease processes have also been studied, but have generally not been supported by epidemiologic studies of workers using benzene in the workplace. Within occupational cohorts with large populations and very low airborne benzene exposures (less than 0.1–1.0 ppm), it can be difficult to separate background disease incidence from those occurring due to occupational exposures. In the last few decades, some scientists and physicians have suggested that chronic exposures to various airborne concentrations of benzene may increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (Savitz and Andrews, 1997, Am J Ind Med 31:287–295; Smith et al., 2007, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:385–391), multiple myeloma (MM) (Goldstein, 1990, Ann NY Acad Sci 609:225–230; Infante, 2006, Ann NY Acad Sci 1076:90–109), and various other hematopoietic disorders. We present a state-of-the-science review of the medic...Continue Reading


Jul 9, 1977·Lancet·P F InfanteR J Young
Feb 25, 1978·Lancet·M Aksoy
Jun 30, 1979·Lancet·N J Vianna, A Polan
Nov 10, 1979·Lancet·P E Enterline
Jun 1, 1979·Environmental Research·D Picciano
Jan 1, 1978·Archives of Environmental Health·M G OttR A Langner
Aug 1, 1978·Journal of Occupational Medicine. : Official Publication of the Industrial Medical Association·W A FishbeckM G Swank
Feb 1, 1976·Environmental Research·E C Vigliani, A Forni
Mar 1, 1976·Journal of Occupational Medicine. : Official Publication of the Industrial Medical Association·A J McMichaelP M Tousey
Jan 1, 1992·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·M A MidzenskiK Kolodner
Jan 1, 1992·Leukemia Research·R GarandJ E Goasguen
Apr 1, 1992·Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP·F Y Bois, D G Paxman
Jul 1, 1992·Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health·D J PaustenbachH D Peterson
Jan 1, 1991·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·D P Loomis, D A Savitz
Jun 1, 1990·Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP·D Paxman, S M Rappaport
Jan 1, 1990·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·B D Goldstein
Oct 1, 1989·Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health·D A Savitz, L Feingold
Jan 1, 1989·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·M G OttH L Greenberg
Dec 1, 1989·American Journal of Epidemiology·K E MaloneJ L Lyon
Nov 1, 1989·Cell Biology and Toxicology·L A Wallace
Mar 1, 1988·American Journal of Epidemiology·H AustinP Cole
Oct 1, 1986·British Journal of Industrial Medicine·G G BondR R Cook
Apr 23, 1987·The New England Journal of Medicine·R A RinskyP J Landrigan
Apr 17, 1987·Science·R Wilson, E A Crouch
Apr 1, 1987·American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal·M E AndersenD J Paustenbach
Jan 1, 1986·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·B J Divine, V Barron
Mar 1, 1987·British Journal of Industrial Medicine·S N YinC Jin
Jan 1, 1985·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·H E Runion, L M Scott
Jan 1, 1985·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·M Aksoy
Jan 1, 1985·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·E P CronkiteJ E Bullis
Oct 1, 1970·The Journal of Surgical Research·D R Burger, R M Vetto
Oct 1, 1974·Cancer·R J Lukes, R D Collins
Jan 1, 1984·Leukemia Research·S M BernardB E Roberts
Sep 15, 1984·Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology·E P CronkiteR T Drew
Dec 1, 1984·American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal·T C WilcoskyH A Tyroler
Sep 1, 1983·Journal of Occupational Medicine. : Official Publication of the Industrial Medical Association·S P TsaiR L Gibson
Jan 1, 1984·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·H CheckowayH Tyroler

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Sep 27, 2012·Cancer Letters·Igor P Pogribny, Frederick A Beland
Dec 5, 2012·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Wesley JamesSatish Kedia
Mar 5, 2014·Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology·Haji BahadarMohammad Abdollahi
Jul 25, 2012·Journal of Biotechnology·Tino PolenMichael Bott
Dec 14, 2011·International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health·Giovanna SpatariSebastiano Gangemi
Feb 2, 2013·Environmental Pollution·Paul J VilleneuveMark S Goldberg
Jan 26, 2013·Critical Reviews in Toxicology·Scott M ArnoldA Robert Schnatter
Mar 31, 2015·Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology·Bo LiLiuxin Cui
Nov 12, 2013·Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology·Samantha E Stokes, Louise M Winn
Sep 17, 2013·Revista de saúde pública·Míriam dos Anjos SantosEloisa Dutra Caldas
Jan 11, 2018·Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health·Heather J AvensJennifer Sahmel
Mar 7, 2018·Toxicology and Industrial Health·Shuqiang SunHongtao Yan
Aug 2, 2016·Environmental Health Perspectives·Yuxia CuiLinda S Birnbaum
Dec 7, 2018·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·Martha S LinetUNKNOWN Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention–US National Cancer Institute Benzene Study Group
Oct 23, 2018·Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology·Wesley T AbplanalpTimothy E O'Toole
Feb 15, 2019·Environmental Science and Pollution Research International·Qi ChenZhen Ding
Feb 17, 2017·Scientific Reports·Faramarz Hossein-Babaei, Ali Hooshyar Zare
Feb 7, 2012·Critical Reviews in Toxicology·Rune DjurhuusVidar Skaug
Sep 21, 2011·Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews·Mihi Yang
May 16, 2015·Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology·Hamdi BaccarAdnane Abdelghani
Jan 12, 2020·Der Internist·Aristoteles Giagounidis
Jun 1, 2020·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·Martha S LinetNathaniel Rothman
Nov 12, 2019·Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis·Mirjam LuijtenJan van Benthem
May 11, 2018·Critical Reviews in Toxicology·Wenchao Li, A Robert Schnatter
May 15, 2020·Environmental Geochemistry and Health·Abhishek NandanPankaj Kumar
Feb 27, 2016·Inhalation Toxicology·Olorunfemi AdetonaLuke P Naeher
Mar 7, 2021·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Andrew N PattonKirsten Koehler
Apr 3, 2021·Environmental Science and Pollution Research International·Olfa Ben DhiaSonia Ben-Hadj-Khalifa
Jul 30, 2011·Environmental Science & Technology·Heather J AvensDennis J Paustenbach

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease with approximately 20,000 cases per year in the United States. AML also accounts for 15-20% of all childhood acute leukemias, while it is responsible for more than half of the leukemic deaths in these patients. Here is the latest research on this disease.

AML: Role of LSD1 by CRISPR (Keystone)

Find the latest rersearrch on the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis to profile the interactions between lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) and chemical inhibitors in the context of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) here.

B-Cell Lymphoma

B-cell lymphomas include lymphomas that affect B cells. This subtype of cancer accounts for over 80% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the US. Here is the latest research.

Blood And Marrow Transplantation

The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or blood and marrow transplantation (bmt) is on the increase worldwide. BMT is used to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Here is the latest research on bone and marrow transplantation.